CHROOT(2) Linux Programmer s Manual CHROOT(2)

NAME chroot - change root directory

SYNOPSIS #include <unistd.h>

int chroot(const char *path);

DESCRIPTION chroot() changes the root directory of the calling process to that specified in path. This directory will be used for pathnames beginning with /. The root directory is inherited by all children of the calling process.

Only a privileged process (Linux: one with the CAP_SYS_CHROOT capabil- ity) may call chroot().

This call changes an ingredient in the pathname resolution process and does nothing else.

This call does not change the current working directory, so that after the call ’.’ can be outside the tree rooted at ’/’. In particular, the superuser can escape from a "chroot jail" by doing:

mkdir foo; chroot foo; cd ..

This call does not close open file descriptors, and such file descrip- tors may allow access to files outside the chroot tree.

RETURN VALUE On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS Depending on the file system, other errors can be returned. The more general errors are listed below:

EACCES Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix. (See also path_resolution(7).)

EFAULT path points outside your accessible address space.

EIO An I/O error occurred.

ELOOP Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path.

ENAMETOOLONG path is too long.

ENOENT The file does not exist.

ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

ENOTDIR A component of path is not a directory.

EPERM The caller has insufficient privilege.

CONFORMING TO SVr4, 4.4BSD, SUSv2 (marked LEGACY). This function is not part of POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES A child process created via fork(2) inherits its parents root direc- tory. The root directory is left unchanged by execve(2).

FreeBSD has a stronger jail() system call.

SEE ALSO chdir(2), path_resolution(7)

COLOPHON This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at

Linux 2008-06-23 CHROOT(2)