EXPAND(1P) POSIX Programmer s Manual EXPAND(1P)

PROLOG This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer s Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME expand - convert tabs to spaces

SYNOPSIS expand [-t tablist][file ...]

DESCRIPTION The expand utility shall write files or the standard input to the stan- dard output with <tab>s replaced with one or more <space>s needed to pad to the next tab stop. Any <backspace>s shall be copied to the out- put and cause the column position count for tab stop calculations to be decremented; the column position count shall not be decremented below zero.

OPTIONS The expand utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

The following option shall be supported:

-t tablist Specify the tab stops. The application shall ensure that the argument tablist consists of either a single positive decimal integer or a list of tabstops. If a single number is given, tabs shall be set that number of column positions apart instead of the default 8.

If a list of tabstops is given, the application shall ensure that it consists of a list of two or more positive decimal integers, separated by <blank>s or commas, in ascending order. The tabs shall be set at those specific column positions. Each tab stop N shall be an integer value greater than zero, and the list is in strictly ascending order. This is taken to mean that, from the start of a line of output, tabbing to position N shall cause the next character output to be in the ( N+1)th column position on that line.

In the event of expand having to process a <tab> at a position beyond the last of those specified in a multiple tab-stop list, the <tab> shall be replaced by a single <space> in the output.

OPERANDS The following operand shall be supported:

file The pathname of a text file to be used as input.

STDIN See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES Input files shall be text files.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES The following environment variables shall affect the execution of expand:

LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Vari- ables for the precedence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

LC_CTYPE Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input files), the processing of <tab>s and <space>s, and for the determination of the width in column positions each character would occupy on an output device.

LC_MESSAGES Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.

NLSPATH Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .


STDOUT The standard output shall be equivalent to the input files with <tab>s converted into the appropriate number of <space>s.

STDERR The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.



EXIT STATUS The following exit values shall be returned:

0 Successful completion

>0 An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS The expand utility shall terminate with an error message and non-zero exit status upon encountering difficulties accessing one of the file operands.

The following sections are informative.



RATIONALE The expand utility is useful for preprocessing text files (before sort- ing, looking at specific columns, and so on) that contain <tab>s.

See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 3.103, Column Position.

The tablist option-argument consists of integers in ascending order. Utility Syntax Guideline 8 mandates that expand shall accept the inte- gers (within the single argument) separated using either commas or <blank>s.


SEE ALSO tabs, unexpand

COPYRIGHT Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group 2003 EXPAND(1P)