DIR(1) User Commands DIR(1)

NAME dir - list directory contents


DESCRIPTION List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, --almost-all do not list implied . and ..

--author with -l, print the author of each file

-b, --escape print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

--block-size=SIZE use SIZE-byte blocks. See SIZE format below

-B, --ignore-backups do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime

-C list entries by columns

--color[=WHEN] colorize the output. WHEN defaults to always or can be never or auto. More info below

-d, --directory list directory entries instead of contents, and do not derefer- ence symbolic links

-D, --dired generate output designed for Emacs dired mode

-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

-F, --classify append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

--file-type likewise, except do not append *

--format=WORD across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

--full-time like -l --time-style=full-iso

-g like -l, but do not list owner

--group-directories-first group directories before files.

augment with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

-G, --no-group in a long listing, dont print group names

-h, --human-readable with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, --dereference-command-line follow symbolic links listed on the command line

--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir follow each command line symbolic link that points to a direc- tory

--hide=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

--indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

-i, --inode print the index number of each file

-I, --ignore=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k like --block-size=1K

-l use a long listing format

-L, --dereference when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa- tion for the file the link references rather than for the link itself

-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, --numeric-uid-gid like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, --literal print raw entry names (dont treat e.g. control characters spe- cially)

-o like -l, but do not list group information

-p, --indicator-style=slash append / indicator to directories

-q, --hide-control-chars print ? instead of non graphic characters

--show-control-chars show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is ls and output is a terminal)

-Q, --quote-name enclose entry names in double quotes

--quoting-style=WORD use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape

-r, --reverse reverse order while sorting

-R, --recursive list subdirectories recursively

-s, --size print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

-S sort by file size

--sort=WORD sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v

--time=WORD with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

--time-style=STYLE with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like date ; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with posix-, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

-t sort by modification time

-T, --tabsize=COLS assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

-U do not sort; list entries in directory order

-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text

-w, --width=COLS assume screen width instead of current value

-x list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X sort alphabetically by entry extension

-1 list one file per line

SELinux options:

--lcontext Display security context. Enable -l. Lines will probably be too wide for most displays.

-Z, --context Display security context so it fits on most displays. Displays only mode, user, group, security context and file name.

--scontext Display only security context and file name.

--help display this help and exit

--version output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol- lowing: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status: 0 if OK,

1 if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

2 if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS Report dir bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/> General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/> Report dir translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT Copyright © 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO The full documentation for dir is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and dir programs are properly installed at your site, the com- mand

info coreutils ’dir invocation’

should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.4 April 2012 DIR(1)