AC(1) AC(1)

NAME ac - print statistics about users connect time

SYNOPSIS ac [ -d | --daily-totals ] [ -y | --print-year ] [ -p | --individual-totals ] [ people ] [ -f | --file filename ] [ -a | --all-days ] [ --complain ] [ --reboots ] [ --supplants ] [ --timewarps ] [ --compatibility ] [ --tw-leniency num ] [ --tw-suspicious num ] [ -z | --print-zeros ] [ --debug ] [ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]

DESCRIPTION ac prints out a report of connect time (in hours) based on the lo- gins/logouts in the current wtmp file. A total is also printed out.

The accounting file wtmp is maintained by init(8) and login(1). Nei- ther ac nor login creates the wtmp if it doesnt exist, no accounting is done. To begin accounting, create the file with a length of zero.

NOTE: The wtmp file can get really big, really fast. You might want to trim it every once and a while.

GNU ac works nearly the same u*x ac, though it s a little smarter in several ways. You should therefore expect differences in the output of GNU ac and the output of acs on other systems. Use the command info accounting to get additional information.

OPTIONS -d, --daily-totals Print totals for each day rather than just one big total at the end. The output looks like this: Jul 3 total 1.17 Jul 4 total 2.10 Jul 5 total 8.23 Jul 6 total 2.10 Jul 7 total 0.30

-p, --individual-totals Print time totals for each user in addition to the usual every- thing-lumped-into-one value. It looks like: bob 8.06 goff 0.60 maley 7.37 root 0.12 total 16.15

people Print out the sum total of the connect time used by all of the users included in people. Note that people is a space separated list of valid user names; wildcards are not allowed.

-f, --file filename Read from the file filename instead of the system s wtmp file.

--complain When the wtmp file has a problem (a time-warp, missing record, or whatever), print out an appropriate error.

--reboots Reboot records are NOT written at the time of a reboot, but when the system restarts; therefore, it is impossible to know exactly when the reboot occurred. Users may have been logged into the system at the time of the reboot, and many as automatically count the time between the login and the reboot record against the user (even though all of that time shouldnt be, perhaps, if the system is down for a long time, for instance). If you want to count this time, include the flag. *For vanilla ac compati- bility, include this flag.*

--supplants Sometimes, a logout record is not written for a specific termi- nal, so the time that the last user accrued cannot be calculat- ed. If you want to include the time from the users login to the next login on the terminal (though probably incorrect), in- clude this you want to include the time from the users login to the next login on the terminal (though probably incorrect), in- clude this flag. *For vanilla ac compatibility, include this flag.*

--timewarps Sometimes, entries in a wtmp file will suddenly jump back into the past without a clock change record occurring. It is impos- sible to know how long a user was logged in when this occurs. If you want to count the time between the login and the time warp against the user, include this flag. *For vanilla ac com- patibility, include this flag.*

--compatibility This is shorthand for typing out the three above options.

-a, --all-days If we re printing daily totals, print a record for every day in- stead of skipping intervening days where there is no login ac- tivity. Without this flag, time accrued during those interven- ing days gets listed under the next day where there is login ac- tivity.

--tw-leniency num Set the time warp leniency to num seconds. Records in wtmp files might be slightly out of order (most notably when two lo- gins occur within a one-second period - the second one gets written first). By default, this value is set to 60. If the program notices this problem, time is not assigned to users un- less the --timewarps flag is used.

--tw-suspicious num Set the time warp suspicious value to num seconds. If two records in the wtmp file are farther than this number of seconds apart, there is a problem with the wtmp file (or your machine hasn t been used in a year). If the program notices this prob- lem, time is not assigned to users unless the --timewarps flag is used.

-y, --print-year Print year when displaying dates.

-z, --print-zeros If a total for any category (save the grand total) is zero, print it. The default is to suppress printing.

--debug Print verbose internal information.

-V, --version Print the version number of ac to standard output and quit.

-h, --help Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to standard output and exits.

FILES wtmp The system wide login record file. See wtmp(5) for further de- tails.

AUTHOR The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg <>. The man page was adapted from the accounting texinfo page by Susan Kleinmann <>.

SEE ALSO login(1), wtmp(5), init(8), sa(8)

1995 October 31 AC(1)