RPM(8) Red Hat Linux RPM(8)

NAME rpm - RPM Package Manager

SYNOPSIS QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES: rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {-K|--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES: rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

MISCELLANEOUS: rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb}

rpm {--addsign|--resign} PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {--querytags|--showrc}

rpm {--setperms|--setugids} PACKAGE_NAME ...

select-options [PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,--all] [-f,--file FILE] [-g,--group GROUP] {-p,--package PACKAGE_FILE] [--fileid MD5] [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID] [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME] [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]

query-options [--changelog] [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump] [--filesbypkg] [-i,--info] [--last] [-l,--list] [--provides] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT] [-R,--requires] [--scripts] [-s,--state] [--triggers,--triggerscripts]

verify-options [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nolinkto] [--nomd5] [--nosize] [--nouser] [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]

install-options [--aid] [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH] [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash] [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos] [--includedocs] [--justdb] [--nodeps] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nosuggest] [--noorder] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH] [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH] [--repackage] [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs] [--test]

DESCRIPTION rpm is a powerful Package Manager, which can be used to build, install, query, verify, update, and erase individual software packages. A pack- age consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to install and erase the archive files. The meta-data includes helper scripts, file attributes, and descriptive information about the package. Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used to encapsulate software to be installed, and source packages, containing the source code and recipe necessary to produce binary packages.

One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify, Sig- nature Check, Install/Upgrade/Freshen, Uninstall, Initialize Database, Rebuild Database, Resign, Add Signature, Set Owners/Groups, Show Query- tags, and Show Configuration.

GENERAL OPTIONS These options can be used in all the different modes.

-?, --help Print a longer usage message then normal.

--version Print a single line containing the version number of rpm being used.

--quiet Print as little as possible - normally only error messages will be displayed.

-v Print verbose information - normally routine progress messages will be displayed.

-vv Print lots of ugly debugging information.

--rcfile FILELIST Each of the files in the colon separated FILELIST is read sequentially by rpm for configuration information. Only the first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be expanded to the value of $HOME. The default FILELIST is /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/red- hat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

--pipe CMD Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

--dbpath DIRECTORY Use the database in DIRECTORY rather than the default path /var/lib/rpm

--root DIRECTORY Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all operations. Note that this means the database within DIRECTORY will be used for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g. %post if installing, or %prep if building, a package) will be run after a chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

-D, --defineMACRO EXPR Defines MACRO with value EXPR.

-E, --evalEXPR Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm install command is

rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This installs a new package.

The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to a newer version. This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of the package are removed after the new package is installed.

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This will upgrade packages, but only if an earlier version currently exists. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http URL, in which case the package will be downloaded before being installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support.

--aid Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.

--allfiles Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package, regardless if they exist.

--badreloc Used with --relocate, permit relocations on all file paths, not just those OLDPATHs included in the binary package relocation hint(s).

--excludepath OLDPATH Dont install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

--excludedocs Don t install any files which are marked as documentation (which includes man pages and texinfo documents).

--force Same as using --replacepkgs, --replacefiles, and --oldpackage.

-h, --hash Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked. Use with -v|--verbose for a nicer display.

--ignoresize Dont check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before installing this package.

--ignorearch Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures of the binary package and host dont match.

--ignoreos Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating systems of the binary package and host dont match.

--includedocs Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

--justdb Update only the database, not the filesystem.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nosignature Don t verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nodeps Dont do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a package.

--nosuggest Don t suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.

--noorder Dont reorder the packages for an install. The list of packages would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.





--nopostun Dont execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option is equivalent to

--nopre --nopost --nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %pre, %post, %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).




--notriggerpostun Dont execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerin --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerin, %trig- gerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--oldpackage Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

--percent Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package archive. This is intended to make rpm easy to run from other tools.

--prefix NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with the installation prefix in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH.

--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with OLDPATH in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH. This option can be used repeatedly if several OLDPATHs in the package are to be relocated.

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--replacefiles Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages.

--replacepkgs Install the packages even if some of them are already installed on this system.

--test Do not install the package, simply check for and report poten- tial conflicts.

ERASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm erase command is

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

The following options may also be used:

--allmatches Remove all versions of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME. Normally an error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME matches multiple packages.

--nodeps Dont check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.



--nopostun Don t execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option during package erase is equivalent to

--nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).



--notriggerpostun Don t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--test Dont really uninstall anything, just go through the motions. Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

QUERY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm query command is

rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

You may specify the format that package information should be printed in. To do this, you use the

--qf|--queryformat QUERYFMT

option, followed by the QUERYFMT format string. Query formats are mod- ified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format is made up of static strings (which may include standard C character escapes for newlines, tabs, and other special characters) and printf(3) type formatters. As rpm already knows the type to print, the type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by the name of the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names are case insensitive, and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name may be omitted as well.

Alternate output formats may be requested by following the tag with :typetag. Currently, the following types are supported:

:armor Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

:base64 Encode binary data using base64.

:date Use strftime(3) "%c" format.

:day Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.

:depflags Format dependency flags.

:fflags Format file flags.

:hex Format in hexadecimal.

:octal Format in octal.

:perms Format file permissions.

:shescape Escape single quotes for use in a script.

:triggertype Display trigger suffix.

For example, to print only the names of the packages queried, you could use %{NAME} as the format string. To print the packages name and dis- tribution information in two columns, you could use %-30{NAME}%{DISTRI- BUTION}. rpm will print a list of all of the tags it knows about when it is invoked with the --querytags argument.

There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection, and information selection.


-a, --all Query all installed packages.

-f, --file FILE Query package owning FILE.

--fileid MD5 Query package that contains a given file identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the file contents.

-g, --group GROUP Query packages with the group of GROUP.

--hdrid SHA1 Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

-p, --package PACKAGE_FILE Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case the package header will be downloaded and queried. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary package, will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest. Comments are permitted, starting with a #, and each line of a package mani- fest file may include white space separated glob expressions, including URLs with remote glob expressions, that will be expanded to paths that are substituted in place of the package manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE arguments to the query.

--pkgid MD5 Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

--querybynumber HDRNUM Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful only for debugging.

--specfile SPECFILE Parse and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not all the information (e.g. file lists) is available, this type of query permits rpm to be used to extract information from spec files without having to write a specfile parser.

--tid TID Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction identifier. A unix time stamp is currently used as a transaction identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within a single transaction have a common identifier.

--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

--whatprovides CAPABILITY Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

--whatrequires CAPABILITY Query all packages that requires CAPABILITY for proper function- ing.

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS: --changelog Display change information for the package.

-c, --configfiles List only configuration files (implies -l).

-d, --docfiles List only documentation files (implies -l).

--dump Dump file information as follows (implies -l):

path size mtime md5sum mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

--filesbypkg List all the files in each selected package.

-i, --info Display package information, including name, version, and description. This uses the --queryformat if one was specified.

--last Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest packages are at the top.

-l, --list List files in package.

--provides List capabilities this package provides.

-R, --requires List packages on which this package depends.

--scripts List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part of the installation and uninstallation processes.

-s, --state Display the states of files in the package (implies -l). The state of each file is one of normal, not installed, or replaced.

--triggers, --triggerscripts Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in the package.

VERIFY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm verify command is

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in the package with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the rpm database. Among other things, verifying compares the size, MD5 sum, permissions, type, owner and group of each file. Any discrepancies are displayed. Files that were not installed from the package, for example, documentation files excluded on instal- lation using the "--excludedocs" option, will be silently ignored.

The package selection options are the same as for package querying (including package manifest files as arguments). Other options unique to verify mode are:

--nodeps Dont verify dependencies of packages.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nofiles Dont verify any attributes of package files.

--noscripts Don t execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

--nosignature Dont verify package or header signatures when reading.








--nordev Dont verify the corresponding file attribute.

The format of the output is a string of 8 characters, a possible attribute marker:

c %config configuration file. d %doc documentation file. g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload). l %license license file. r %readme readme file.

from the package header, followed by the file name. Each of the 8 characters denotes the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the database. A single "." (period) means the test passed, while a single "?" (question mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file permissions prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically emBoldened) character denotes failure of the corresponding --verify test:

S file Size differs M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type) 5 MD5 sum differs D Device major/minor number mismatch L readLink(2) path mismatch U User ownership differs G Group ownership differs T mTime differs

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

The --checksig option checks all the digests and signatures contained in PACKAGE_FILE to ensure the integrity and origin of the package. Note that signatures are now verified whenever a package is read, and --checksig is useful to verify all of the digests and signatures asso- ciated with a package.

Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key. An ASCII armored public key can be added to the rpm database using --import. An imported public key is carried in a header, and key ring management is performed exactly like package management. For example, all currently imported public keys can be displayed by:

rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

Details about a specific public key, when imported, can be displayed by querying. Heres information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like packages. Heres how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

SIGNING A PACKAGE rpm --addsign|--resign PACKAGE_FILE ...

Both of the --addsign and --resign options generate and insert new sig- natures for each package PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any existing signatures. There are two options for historical reasons, there is no difference in behavior currently.

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm must be configured to run GPG and be able to find a key ring with the appropriate keys. By default, rpm uses the same conventions as GPG to find key rings, namely the $GNUPGHOME environment variable. If your key rings are not located where GPG expects them to be, you will need to configure the macro %_gpg_path to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and rpm, only V3 OpenPGP signature packets should be configured. Either DSA or RSA ver- ification algorithms can be used, but DSA is preferred.

If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you also need to create your own public and secret key pair (see the GPG man- ual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros

%_signature The signature type. Right now only gpg and pgp are supported.

%_gpg_name The name of the "user" whose key you wish to use to sign your packages.

For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user "John Doe <jdoe@foo.com>" from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg using the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include

%_signature gpg %_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg %_gpg_name John Doe <jdoe@foo.com> %_gpgbin /usr/bin/gpg

in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros for per-system con- figuration and ~/.rpmmacros for per-user configuration.

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is

rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb} [-v] [--dbpath DIRECTORY] [--root DIRECTORY]

Use --initdb to create a new database if one doesnt already exist (existing database is not overwritten), use --rebuilddb to rebuild the database indices from the installed package headers.

SHOWRC The command

rpm --showrc

shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are currently set in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so that packages can be queried or installed from the internet. Package files for install, upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http style URL:


If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be prompted for (once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and password are omit- ted, anonymous ftp is used. In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp transfers are performed.

rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

--ftpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all ftp trans- fers, which allows users to ftp through firewall machines which use proxy systems. This option may also be specified by config- uring the macro %_ftpproxy.

--ftpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the ftp connection on the proxy ftp server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_ftpport.

rpm allows the following options to be used with http URLs:

--httpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all http trans- fers. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpproxy.

--httpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the proxy http server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES Executing rpmbuild The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild exe- cutable. Although legacy compatibility provided by the popt aliases below has been adequate, the compatibility is not perfect; hence build mode compatibility through popt aliases is being removed from rpm. Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-build) and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build modes previously documented here in rpm(8).

Add the following lines to /etc/popt if you wish to continue invoking rpmbuild from the rpm command line:

rpm exec --bp rpmb -bp rpm exec --bc rpmb -bc rpm exec --bi rpmb -bi rpm exec --bl rpmb -bl rpm exec --ba rpmb -ba rpm exec --bb rpmb -bb rpm exec --bs rpmb -bs rpm exec --tp rpmb -tp rpm exec --tc rpmb -tc rpm exec --ti rpmb -ti rpm exec --tl rpmb -tl rpm exec --ta rpmb -ta rpm exec --tb rpmb -tb rpm exec --ts rpmb -ts rpm exec --rebuild rpmb --rebuild rpm exec --recompile rpmb --recompile rpm exec --clean rpmb --clean rpm exec --rmsource rpmb --rmsource rpm exec --rmspec rpmb --rmspec rpm exec --target rpmb --target rpm exec --short-circuit rpmb --short-circuit

FILES rpmrc Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc /etc/rpmrc ~/.rpmrc

Macro Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/macros /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros /etc/rpm/macros ~/.rpmmacros

Database /var/lib/rpm/Basenames /var/lib/rpm/Conflictname /var/lib/rpm/Dirnames /var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s /var/lib/rpm/Group /var/lib/rpm/Installtid /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Providename /var/lib/rpm/Provideversion /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Removed /var/lib/rpm/Requirename /var/lib/rpm/Requireversion /var/lib/rpm/Sha1header /var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5 /var/lib/rpm/Triggername

Temporary /var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO popt(3), rpm2cpio(8), rpmbuild(8),

rpm --help - as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases its impossible to guarantee that whats described in the manual matches whats available.

http://www.rpm.org/ <URL:http://www.rpm.org/>

AUTHORS Marc Ewing <marc@redhat.com> Jeff Johnson <jbj@redhat.com> Erik Troan <ewt@redhat.com>

Red Hat, Inc. 09 June 2002 RPM(8) CRASH(8) CRASH(8)

NAME crash - Analyze Linux crash dump data or a live system

SYNOPSIS crash [OPTION]... NAMELIST MEMORY-IMAGE (dumpfile form) crash [OPTION]... [NAMELIST] (live system form)

DESCRIPTION Crash is a tool for interactively analyzing the state of the Linux sys- tem while it is running, or after a kernel crash has occurred and a core dump has been created by the netdump, diskdump, LKCD, kdump, xen- dump or kvmdump facilities. It is loosely based on the SVR4 UNIX crash command, but has been significantly enhanced by completely merging it with the gdb(1) debugger. The marriage of the two effectively combines the kernel-specific nature of the traditional UNIX crash utility with the source code level debugging capabilities of gdb(1).

In the dumpfile form, both a NAMELIST and a MEMORY-IMAGE argument must be entered. In the live system form, the NAMELIST argument must be entered if the kernels vmlinux file is not located in a known loca- tion, such as the /usr/lib/debug/lib/modules/<kernel-version> direc- tory.

The crash utility has also been extended to support the analysis of dumpfiles generated by a crash of the Xen hypervisor. In that case, the NAMELIST argument must be that of the xen-syms binary. Live system analysis is not supported for the Xen hypervisor.

The crash utility command set consists of common kernel core analysis tools such as kernel stack back traces of all processes, source code disassembly, formatted kernel structure and variable displays, virtual memory data, dumps of linked-lists, etc., along with several commands that delve deeper into specific kernel subsystems. Appropriate gdb commands may also be entered, which in turn are passed on to the gdb module for execution. If desired, commands may be placed in either a $HOME/.crashrc file and/or in a .crashrc file in the current directory. During initialization, the commands in $HOME/.crashrc are executed first, followed by those in the ./.crashrc file.

The crash utility is designed to be independent of Linux version depen- dencies. When new kernel source code impacts the correct functionality of crash and its command set, the utility will be updated to recognize new kernel code changes, while maintaining backwards compatibility with earlier releases.

OPTIONS NAMELIST This is a pathname to an uncompressed kernel image (a vmlinux file), or a Xen hypervisor image (a xen-syms file) which has been compiled with the "-g" option. If using the dumpfile form, a vmlinux file may be compressed in either gzip or bzip2 for- mats.

MEMORY-IMAGE A kernel core dump file created by the netdump, diskdump, LKCD kdump, xendump or kvmdump facilities.

If a MEMORY-IMAGE argument is not entered, the session will be invoked on the live system, which typically requires root privi- leges because of the device file used to access system RAM. By default, /dev/crash will be used if it exists. If it does not exist, then /dev/mem will be used; but if the kernel has been configured with CONFIG_STRICT_DEVMEM, then /proc/kcore will be used. It is permissible to explicitly enter /dev/crash, /dev/mem or /proc/kcore.

mapfile If the NAMELIST file is not the same kernel that is running (live system form), or the kernel that was running when the sys- tem crashed (dumpfile form), then the System.map file of the original kernel should be entered on the command line.

-h [option] --help [option] Without an option argument, display a crash usage help message. If the option argument is a crash command name, the help page for that command is displayed. If it is the string "input", a page describing the various crash command line input options is displayed. If it is the string "output", a page describing com- mand line output options is displayed. After the help message is displayed, crash exits.

-s Proceed directly to the "crash>" prompt without displaying any version, GPL, or crash initialization data during startup.

-i file Execute the command(s) contained in file prior to displaying the "crash>" prompt for interactive user input.

-d num Set the internal debug level. The higher the number, the more debugging data will be printed when crash initializes and runs.

-S Use /boot/System.map as the mapfile.

-e vi | emacs Set the readline(3) command line editing mode to "vi" or "emacs". The default editing mode is "vi".

-f Force the usage of a compressed vmlinux file if its original name does not start with "vmlinux".

-k Indicate that the NAMELIST file is an LKCD "Kerntypes" debuginfo file.

-t Display the system-crash timestamp and exit.

-L Attempt to lock all of its virtual address space into memory by calling mlockall(MCL_CURRENT|MCL_FUTURE) during initialization. If the system call fails, an error message will be displayed, but the session continues.

-c tty-device Open the tty-device as the console used for debug messages.

-p page-size If a processors page size cannot be determined by the dumpfile, and the processor default cannot be used, use page-size.

-m option=value --machdep option=value Pass an option and value pair to machine-dependent code. These architecture-specific option/pairs should only be required in very rare circumstances:

X86_64: physbase=<physical-address> irq_eframe_link=<value> max_physmem_bits=<value> vm=orig (pre-2.6.11 virtual memory address ranges) vm=2.6.11 (2.6.11 and later virtual memory address ranges) vm=xen (Xen kernel virtual memory address ranges) vm=xen-rhel4 (RHEL4 Xen kernel virtual address ranges) PPC64: vm=orig vm=2.6.14 (4-level page tables) IA64: phys_start=<physical-address> init_stack_size=<size> vm=4l (4-level page tables) ARM: physbase=<physical-address>

-x Automatically load extension modules from a particular direc- tory. If a directory is specified in the CRASH_EXTENSIONS shell environment variable, then that directory will be used. Other- wise /usr/lib64/crash/extensions (64-bit architectures) or /usr/lib/crash/extensions (32-bit architectures) will be used; if they do not exist, then the ./extensions directory will be used.

--memory_module modname Use the modname as an alternative kernel module to the crash.ko module that creates the /dev/crash device.

--memory_device device Use device as an alternative device to the /dev/crash, /dev/mem or /proc/kcore devices.

--no_kallsyms Do not use kallsyms-generated symbol information contained within kernel module object files.

--no_modules Do not access or display any kernel module related information.

--no_ikconf Do not attempt to read configuration data that was built into kernels configured with CONFIG_IKCONFIG.

--no_data_debug Do not verify the validity of all structure member offsets and structure sizes that it uses.

--no_kmem_cache Do not initialize the kernel s slab cache infrastructure, and commands that use kmem_cache-related data will not work.

--no_elf_notes Do not use the registers from the ELF NT_PRSTATUS notes saved in a compressed kdump header for backtraces.

--kmem_cache_delay Delay the initialization of the kernels slab cache infrastruc- ture until it is required by a run-time command.

--readnow Pass this flag to the embedded gdb module, which will override its two-stage strategy that it uses for reading symbol tables from the NAMELIST.

--smp Specify that the system being analyzed is an SMP kernel.

-v --version Display the version of the crash utility, the version of the embedded gdb module, GPL information, and copyright notices.

--cpus number Specify the number of cpus in the SMP system being analyzed.

--osrelease dumpfile Display the OSRELEASE vmcoreinfo string from a kdump dumpfile header.

--hyper Force the session to be that of a Xen hypervisor.

--p2m_mfn pfn When a Xen Hypervisor or its dom0 kernel crashes, the dumpfile is typically analyzed with either the Xen hypervisor or the dom0 kernel. It is also possible to analyze any of the guest domU kernels if the pfn_to_mfn_list_list pfn value of the guest ker- nel is passed on the command line along with its NAMELIST and the dumpfile.

--xen_phys_start physical-address Supply the base physical address of the Xen hypervisors text and static data for older xendump dumpfiles that did not pass that information in the dumpfile header.

--zero_excluded If a kdump dumpfile has been filtered to exclude various types of non-essential pages, any attempt to read them will fail. With this flag, reads from any of those pages will return zero- filled memory.

--no_panic Do not attempt to find the task that was running when the kernel crashed. Set the initial context to that of the "swapper" task on cpu 0.

--more Use /bin/more as the command output scroller, overriding the default of /usr/bin/less and any settings in either ./.crashrc or $HOME/.crashrc.

--less Use /usr/bin/less as the command output scroller, overriding any settings in either ./.crashrc or $HOME/.crashrc.

--CRASHPAGER Use the output paging command defined in the CRASHPAGER shell environment variable, overriding any settings in either ./.crashrc or $HOME/.crashrc.

--no_scroll Do not pass run-time command output to any scrolling command.

--no_crashrc Do not execute the commands in either $HOME/.crashrc or ./.crashrc.

--mod directory When loading the debuginfo data of kernel modules with the mod -S command, search for their object files in directory instead of in the standard location.

--reloc size When analyzing live x86 kernels that were configured with a CON- FIG_PHYSICAL_START value that is larger than its CONFIG_PHYSI- CAL_ALIGN value, then it will be necessary to enter a relocation size equal to the difference between the two values.

--minimal Bring up a session that is restricted to the log, dis, rd, sym, eval, set and exit commands. This option may provide a way to extract some minimal/quick information from a corrupted or trun- cated dumpfile, or in situations where one of the several kernel subsystem initialization routines would abort the crash session.

--kvmhost [32|64] When examining an x86 KVM guest dumpfile, this option specifies that the KVM host that created the dumpfile was an x86 (32-bit) or an x86_64 (64-bit) machine, overriding the automatically determined value.

--kvmio <size> override the automatically-calculated KVM guest I/O hole size.

COMMANDS Each crash command generally falls into one of the following cate- gories:

Symbolic display Displays of kernel text/data, which take full advantage of the power of gdb to format and display data structures symbolically.

System state The majority of crash commands consist of a set of "kernel- aware" commands, which delve into various kernel subsystems on a system-wide or per-task basis.

Utility functions A set of useful helper commands serving various purposes, some simple, others quite powerful.

Session control Commands that control the crash session itself.

The following alphabetical list consists of a very simple overview of each crash command. However, since individual commands often have sev- eral options resulting in significantly different output, it is sug- gested that the full description of each command be viewed by executing crash -h <command>, or during a crash session by simply entering help command.

* "pointer to" is shorthand for either the struct or union com- mands. It displays the contents of a kernel structure or union.

alias creates a single-word alias for a command.

ascii displays an ascii chart or translates a numeric value into its ascii components.

bt displays a tasks kernel-stack backtrace. If it is given the -a option, it displays the stack traces of the active tasks on all CPUs. It is often used with the foreach command to display the backtraces of all tasks with one command.

btop translates a byte value (physical offset) to its page number.

dev displays data concerning the character and block device assign- ments, I/O port usage, I/O memory usage, and PCI device data.

dis disassembles memory, either entire kernel functions, from a location for a specified number of instructions, or from the start of a function up to a specified memory location.

eval evaluates an expression or numeric type and displays the result in hexadecimal, decimal, octal and binary.

exit causes crash to exit.

extend dynamically loads or unloads crash shared object extension mod- ules.

files displays information about open files in a context.

foreach repeats a specified command for the specified (or all) tasks in the system.

fuser displays the tasks using the specified file or socket.

gdb passes its argument to the embedded gdb module. It is useful for executing gdb commands that have the same name as crash com- mands.

help alone displays the command menu; if followed by a command name, a full description of a command, its options, and examples are displayed. Its output is far more complete and useful than this man page.

irq displays data concerning interrupt request numbers and bottom- half interrupt handling.

kmem displays information about the use of kernel memory.

list displays the contents of a linked list.

log displays the kernel log_buf contents in chronological order.

mach displays data specific to the machine type.

mod displays information about the currently installed kernel mod- ules, or adds or deletes symbolic or debugging information about specified kernel modules.

mount displays information about the currently-mounted filesystems.

net display various network related data.

p passes its arguments to the gdb "print" command for evaluation and display.

ps displays process status for specified, or all, processes in the system.

pte translates the hexadecimal contents of a PTE into its physical page address and page bit settings.

ptob translates a page frame number to its byte value.

ptov translates a hexadecimal physical address into a kernel virtual address.

q is an alias for the "exit" command.

rd displays the contents of memory, with the output formatted in several different manners.

repeat repeats a command indefinitely, optionally delaying a given num- ber of seconds between each command execution.

runq displays the tasks on the run queue.

search searches a range of user or kernel memory space for given value.

set either sets a new context, or gets the current context for dis- play.

sig displays signal-handling data of one or more tasks.

struct displays either a structure definition or the contents of a ker- nel structure at a specified address.

swap displays information about each configured swap device.

sym translates a symbol to its virtual address, or a static kernel virtual address to its symbol -- or to a symbol-plus-offset value, if appropriate.

sys displays system-specific data.

task displays the contents of a task_struct.

timer displays the timer queue entries, both old- and new-style, in chronological order.

union is similar to the struct command, except that it works on kernel unions.

vm displays basic virtual memory information of a context.

vtop translates a user or kernel virtual address to its physical address.

waitq walks the wait queue list displaying the tasks which are blocked on the specified wait queue.

whatis displays the definition of structures, unions, typedefs or text/data symbols.

wr modifies the contents of memory on a live system. It can only be used if /dev/mem is the device file being used to access sys- tem RAM, and should obviously be used with great care.

When crash is invoked with a Xen hypervisor binary as the NAMELIST, the command set is slightly modified. The *, alias, ascii, bt, dis, eval, exit, extend, gdb, help, list, log, p, pte, rd, repeat, search, set, struct, sym, sys, union, whatis, wr and q commands are the same as above. The following commands are specific to the Xen hypervisor:

domain displays the contents of the domain structure for selected, or all, domains.

doms displays domain status for selected, or all, domains.

dumpinfo displays Xen dump information for selected, or all, cpus.

pcpus displays physical cpu information for selected, or all, cpus.

vcpus displays vcpu status for selected, or all, vcpus.

FILES .crashrc Initialization commands. The file can be located in the users HOME directory and/or the current directory. Commands found in the .crashrc file in the HOME directory are executed before those in the current directorys .crashrc file.

ENVIRONMENT EDITOR Command input is read using readline(3). If EDITOR is set to emacs or vi then suitable keybindings are used. If EDITOR is not set, then vi is used. This can be overridden by set vi or set emacs commands located in a .crashrc file, or by entering -e emacs on the crash command line.

CRASHPAGER If CRASHPAGER is set, its value is used as the name of the pro- gram to which command output will be sent. If not, then command output is sent to /usr/bin/less -E -X by default.

CRASH_MODULE_PATH Specifies an alternative directory tree to search for kernel module object files.

CRASH_EXTENSIONS Specifies a directory containing extension modules that will be loaded automatically if the -x command line option is used.

NOTES If crash does not work, look for a newer version: kernel evolution fre- quently makes crash updates necessary.

The command set scroll off will cause output to be sent directly to the terminal rather than through a paging program. This is useful, for example, if you are running crash in a window of emacs.

AUTHOR Dave Anderson <anderson@redhat.com> wrote crash.

Jay Fenlason <fenlason@redhat.com> and Dave Anderson <anderson@red- hat.com> wrote this man page.

SEE ALSO The help command within crash provides more complete and accurate docu- mentation than this man page.

http://people.redhat.com/anderson - the home page of the crash utility.

netdump(8), gdb(1)