RPM(8) Red Hat Linux RPM(8)

NAME rpm - RPM Package Manager

SYNOPSIS QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES: rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {-K|--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES: rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

MISCELLANEOUS: rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb}

rpm {--addsign|--resign} PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {--querytags|--showrc}

rpm {--setperms|--setugids} PACKAGE_NAME ...

select-options [PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,--all] [-f,--file FILE] [-g,--group GROUP] {-p,--package PACKAGE_FILE] [--fileid MD5] [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID] [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME] [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]

query-options [--changelog] [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump] [--filesbypkg] [-i,--info] [--last] [-l,--list] [--provides] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT] [-R,--requires] [--scripts] [-s,--state] [--triggers,--triggerscripts]

verify-options [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nolinkto] [--nomd5] [--nosize] [--nouser] [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]

install-options [--aid] [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH] [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash] [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos] [--includedocs] [--justdb] [--nodeps] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nosuggest] [--noorder] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH] [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH] [--repackage] [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs] [--test]

DESCRIPTION rpm is a powerful Package Manager, which can be used to build, install, query, verify, update, and erase individual software packages. A pack- age consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to install and erase the archive files. The meta-data includes helper scripts, file attributes, and descriptive information about the package. Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used to encapsulate software to be installed, and source packages, containing the source code and recipe necessary to produce binary packages.

One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify, Sig- nature Check, Install/Upgrade/Freshen, Uninstall, Initialize Database, Rebuild Database, Resign, Add Signature, Set Owners/Groups, Show Query- tags, and Show Configuration.

GENERAL OPTIONS These options can be used in all the different modes.

-?, --help Print a longer usage message then normal.

--version Print a single line containing the version number of rpm being used.

--quiet Print as little as possible - normally only error messages will be displayed.

-v Print verbose information - normally routine progress messages will be displayed.

-vv Print lots of ugly debugging information.

--rcfile FILELIST Each of the files in the colon separated FILELIST is read sequentially by rpm for configuration information. Only the first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be expanded to the value of $HOME. The default FILELIST is /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/red- hat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

--pipe CMD Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

--dbpath DIRECTORY Use the database in DIRECTORY rather than the default path /var/lib/rpm

--root DIRECTORY Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all operations. Note that this means the database within DIRECTORY will be used for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g. %post if installing, or %prep if building, a package) will be run after a chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

-D, --defineMACRO EXPR Defines MACRO with value EXPR.

-E, --evalEXPR Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm install command is

rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This installs a new package.

The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to a newer version. This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of the package are removed after the new package is installed.

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This will upgrade packages, but only if an earlier version currently exists. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http URL, in which case the package will be downloaded before being installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support.

--aid Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.

--allfiles Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package, regardless if they exist.

--badreloc Used with --relocate, permit relocations on all file paths, not just those OLDPATHs included in the binary package relocation hint(s).

--excludepath OLDPATH Dont install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

--excludedocs Don t install any files which are marked as documentation (which includes man pages and texinfo documents).

--force Same as using --replacepkgs, --replacefiles, and --oldpackage.

-h, --hash Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked. Use with -v|--verbose for a nicer display.

--ignoresize Dont check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before installing this package.

--ignorearch Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures of the binary package and host dont match.

--ignoreos Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating systems of the binary package and host dont match.

--includedocs Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

--justdb Update only the database, not the filesystem.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nosignature Don t verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nodeps Dont do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a package.

--nosuggest Don t suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.

--noorder Dont reorder the packages for an install. The list of packages would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.





--nopostun Dont execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option is equivalent to

--nopre --nopost --nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %pre, %post, %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).




--notriggerpostun Dont execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerin --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerin, %trig- gerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--oldpackage Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

--percent Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package archive. This is intended to make rpm easy to run from other tools.

--prefix NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with the installation prefix in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH.

--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with OLDPATH in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH. This option can be used repeatedly if several OLDPATHs in the package are to be relocated.

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--replacefiles Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages.

--replacepkgs Install the packages even if some of them are already installed on this system.

--test Do not install the package, simply check for and report poten- tial conflicts.

ERASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm erase command is

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

The following options may also be used:

--allmatches Remove all versions of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME. Normally an error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME matches multiple packages.

--nodeps Dont check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.



--nopostun Don t execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option during package erase is equivalent to

--nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).



--notriggerpostun Don t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--test Dont really uninstall anything, just go through the motions. Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

QUERY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm query command is

rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

You may specify the format that package information should be printed in. To do this, you use the

--qf|--queryformat QUERYFMT

option, followed by the QUERYFMT format string. Query formats are mod- ified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format is made up of static strings (which may include standard C character escapes for newlines, tabs, and other special characters) and printf(3) type formatters. As rpm already knows the type to print, the type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by the name of the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names are case insensitive, and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name may be omitted as well.

Alternate output formats may be requested by following the tag with :typetag. Currently, the following types are supported:

:armor Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

:base64 Encode binary data using base64.

:date Use strftime(3) "%c" format.

:day Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.

:depflags Format dependency flags.

:fflags Format file flags.

:hex Format in hexadecimal.

:octal Format in octal.

:perms Format file permissions.

:shescape Escape single quotes for use in a script.

:triggertype Display trigger suffix.

For example, to print only the names of the packages queried, you could use %{NAME} as the format string. To print the packages name and dis- tribution information in two columns, you could use %-30{NAME}%{DISTRI- BUTION}. rpm will print a list of all of the tags it knows about when it is invoked with the --querytags argument.

There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection, and information selection.


-a, --all Query all installed packages.

-f, --file FILE Query package owning FILE.

--fileid MD5 Query package that contains a given file identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the file contents.

-g, --group GROUP Query packages with the group of GROUP.

--hdrid SHA1 Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

-p, --package PACKAGE_FILE Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case the package header will be downloaded and queried. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary package, will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest. Comments are permitted, starting with a #, and each line of a package mani- fest file may include white space separated glob expressions, including URLs with remote glob expressions, that will be expanded to paths that are substituted in place of the package manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE arguments to the query.

--pkgid MD5 Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

--querybynumber HDRNUM Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful only for debugging.

--specfile SPECFILE Parse and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not all the information (e.g. file lists) is available, this type of query permits rpm to be used to extract information from spec files without having to write a specfile parser.

--tid TID Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction identifier. A unix time stamp is currently used as a transaction identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within a single transaction have a common identifier.

--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

--whatprovides CAPABILITY Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

--whatrequires CAPABILITY Query all packages that requires CAPABILITY for proper function- ing.

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS: --changelog Display change information for the package.

-c, --configfiles List only configuration files (implies -l).

-d, --docfiles List only documentation files (implies -l).

--dump Dump file information as follows (implies -l):

path size mtime md5sum mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

--filesbypkg List all the files in each selected package.

-i, --info Display package information, including name, version, and description. This uses the --queryformat if one was specified.

--last Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest packages are at the top.

-l, --list List files in package.

--provides List capabilities this package provides.

-R, --requires List packages on which this package depends.

--scripts List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part of the installation and uninstallation processes.

-s, --state Display the states of files in the package (implies -l). The state of each file is one of normal, not installed, or replaced.

--triggers, --triggerscripts Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in the package.

VERIFY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm verify command is

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in the package with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the rpm database. Among other things, verifying compares the size, MD5 sum, permissions, type, owner and group of each file. Any discrepancies are displayed. Files that were not installed from the package, for example, documentation files excluded on instal- lation using the "--excludedocs" option, will be silently ignored.

The package selection options are the same as for package querying (including package manifest files as arguments). Other options unique to verify mode are:

--nodeps Dont verify dependencies of packages.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nofiles Dont verify any attributes of package files.

--noscripts Don t execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

--nosignature Dont verify package or header signatures when reading.








--nordev Dont verify the corresponding file attribute.

The format of the output is a string of 8 characters, a possible attribute marker:

c %config configuration file. d %doc documentation file. g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload). l %license license file. r %readme readme file.

from the package header, followed by the file name. Each of the 8 characters denotes the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the database. A single "." (period) means the test passed, while a single "?" (question mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file permissions prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically emBoldened) character denotes failure of the corresponding --verify test:

S file Size differs M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type) 5 MD5 sum differs D Device major/minor number mismatch L readLink(2) path mismatch U User ownership differs G Group ownership differs T mTime differs

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

The --checksig option checks all the digests and signatures contained in PACKAGE_FILE to ensure the integrity and origin of the package. Note that signatures are now verified whenever a package is read, and --checksig is useful to verify all of the digests and signatures asso- ciated with a package.

Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key. An ASCII armored public key can be added to the rpm database using --import. An imported public key is carried in a header, and key ring management is performed exactly like package management. For example, all currently imported public keys can be displayed by:

rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

Details about a specific public key, when imported, can be displayed by querying. Heres information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like packages. Heres how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

SIGNING A PACKAGE rpm --addsign|--resign PACKAGE_FILE ...

Both of the --addsign and --resign options generate and insert new sig- natures for each package PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any existing signatures. There are two options for historical reasons, there is no difference in behavior currently.

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm must be configured to run GPG and be able to find a key ring with the appropriate keys. By default, rpm uses the same conventions as GPG to find key rings, namely the $GNUPGHOME environment variable. If your key rings are not located where GPG expects them to be, you will need to configure the macro %_gpg_path to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and rpm, only V3 OpenPGP signature packets should be configured. Either DSA or RSA ver- ification algorithms can be used, but DSA is preferred.

If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you also need to create your own public and secret key pair (see the GPG man- ual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros

%_signature The signature type. Right now only gpg and pgp are supported.

%_gpg_name The name of the "user" whose key you wish to use to sign your packages.

For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user "John Doe <jdoe@foo.com>" from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg using the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include

%_signature gpg %_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg %_gpg_name John Doe <jdoe@foo.com> %_gpgbin /usr/bin/gpg

in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros for per-system con- figuration and ~/.rpmmacros for per-user configuration.

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is

rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb} [-v] [--dbpath DIRECTORY] [--root DIRECTORY]

Use --initdb to create a new database if one doesnt already exist (existing database is not overwritten), use --rebuilddb to rebuild the database indices from the installed package headers.

SHOWRC The command

rpm --showrc

shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are currently set in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so that packages can be queried or installed from the internet. Package files for install, upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http style URL:


If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be prompted for (once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and password are omit- ted, anonymous ftp is used. In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp transfers are performed.

rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

--ftpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all ftp trans- fers, which allows users to ftp through firewall machines which use proxy systems. This option may also be specified by config- uring the macro %_ftpproxy.

--ftpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the ftp connection on the proxy ftp server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_ftpport.

rpm allows the following options to be used with http URLs:

--httpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all http trans- fers. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpproxy.

--httpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the proxy http server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES Executing rpmbuild The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild exe- cutable. Although legacy compatibility provided by the popt aliases below has been adequate, the compatibility is not perfect; hence build mode compatibility through popt aliases is being removed from rpm. Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-build) and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build modes previously documented here in rpm(8).

Add the following lines to /etc/popt if you wish to continue invoking rpmbuild from the rpm command line:

rpm exec --bp rpmb -bp rpm exec --bc rpmb -bc rpm exec --bi rpmb -bi rpm exec --bl rpmb -bl rpm exec --ba rpmb -ba rpm exec --bb rpmb -bb rpm exec --bs rpmb -bs rpm exec --tp rpmb -tp rpm exec --tc rpmb -tc rpm exec --ti rpmb -ti rpm exec --tl rpmb -tl rpm exec --ta rpmb -ta rpm exec --tb rpmb -tb rpm exec --ts rpmb -ts rpm exec --rebuild rpmb --rebuild rpm exec --recompile rpmb --recompile rpm exec --clean rpmb --clean rpm exec --rmsource rpmb --rmsource rpm exec --rmspec rpmb --rmspec rpm exec --target rpmb --target rpm exec --short-circuit rpmb --short-circuit

FILES rpmrc Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc /etc/rpmrc ~/.rpmrc

Macro Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/macros /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros /etc/rpm/macros ~/.rpmmacros

Database /var/lib/rpm/Basenames /var/lib/rpm/Conflictname /var/lib/rpm/Dirnames /var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s /var/lib/rpm/Group /var/lib/rpm/Installtid /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Providename /var/lib/rpm/Provideversion /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Removed /var/lib/rpm/Requirename /var/lib/rpm/Requireversion /var/lib/rpm/Sha1header /var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5 /var/lib/rpm/Triggername

Temporary /var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO popt(3), rpm2cpio(8), rpmbuild(8),

rpm --help - as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases its impossible to guarantee that whats described in the manual matches whats available.

http://www.rpm.org/ <URL:http://www.rpm.org/>

AUTHORS Marc Ewing <marc@redhat.com> Jeff Johnson <jbj@redhat.com> Erik Troan <ewt@redhat.com>

Red Hat, Inc. 09 June 2002 RPM(8) BUSYBOX(1) BusyBox BUSYBOX(1)

NAME BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux

SYNTAX BusyBox <function> [arguments...] # or

<function> [arguments...] # if symlinked

DESCRIPTION BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc. The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full- featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counter- parts.

BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind. It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel. BusyBox provides a fairly complete POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

BusyBox is extremely configurable. This allows you to include only the components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run make config or make menuconfig to select the functionality that you wish to enable. Then run make to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

After the compile has finished, you should use make install to install BusyBox. This will install the bin/busybox binary, in the target directory specified by PREFIX. PREFIX can be set when configur- ing BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at install time (i.e., with a command line like make PREFIX=/tmp/foo install). If you enabled any applet installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also be installed in the location pointed to by PREFIX.

USAGE BusyBox is a multi-call binary. A multi-call binary is an executable program that performs the same job as more than one utility program. That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single binary acts like a large number of utilities. This allows BusyBox to be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them applets) can share code for many common operations.

You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the command line. For example, entering

/bin/busybox ls

will also cause BusyBox to behave as ls.

Of course, adding /bin/busybox into every command would be painful. So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.

For example, entering

ln -s /bin/busybox ls ./ls

will cause BusyBox to behave as ls (if the ls command has been compiled into BusyBox). Generally speaking, you should never need to make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this for you when you run the make install command.

If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a list of the applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.

COMMON OPTIONS Most BusyBox commands support the --help argument to provide a terse runtime description of their behavior. If the CONFIG_FEATURE_VER- BOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed usage information will also be available.

COMMANDS Currently defined functions include:

[, [[, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arping, ash, awk, basename, bbconfig, bunzip2, busybox, bzcat, cal, cat, catv, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, cp, cpio, crond, crontab, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser, devfsd, df, diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg_deb, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck, echo, ed, eject, env, ether_wake, expr, fakeidentd, false, fbset, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk, find, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck, fsck_minix, ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getopt, getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, hdparm, head, hexdump, hostid, hostname, httpd, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup, inetd, init, insmod, install, ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, iproute, iptunnel, kill, killall, klogd, lash, last, length, less, ln, load_policy, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login, logname, logread, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, makedevs, md5sum, mdev, mesg, mkdir, mke2fs, mkfifo, mkfs_minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat, nice, nohup, nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof, ping, ping6, pivot_root, poweroff, printenv, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, readprofile, realpath, reboot, renice, reset, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, run_parts, runlevel, rx, sed, seq, setarch, setconsole, setkeycodes, setlogcons, setsid, sha1sum, sleep, sort, start_stop_daemon, stat, strings, stty, su, sulogin, sum, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl, syslogd, tail, tar, tee, telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, time, top, touch, tr, traceroute, true, tty, tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd, umount, uname, uncompress, uniq, unix2dos, unlzma, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip

COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS addgroup addgroup [-g GID] group_name [user_name]

Adds a group to the system


-g GID specify gid

adduser adduser [OPTIONS] user_name

Adds a user to the system


-h DIR Assign home directory DIR -g GECOS Assign gecos field GECOS -s SHELL Assign login shell SHELL -G Add the user to existing group GROUP -S create a system user (ignored) -D Do not assign a password (logins still possible via ssh) -H Do not create the home directory

adjtimex adjtimex [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t tick]

Reads and optionally sets system timebase parameters. See adj- timex(2).


-q quiet mode - do not print -o offset time offset, microseconds -f frequency frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm) (positive values make the system clock run fast) -t tick microseconds per tick, usually 10000 -p timeconstant

ar ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

Extract or list FILES from an ar archive.


-o preserve original dates -p extract to stdout -t list -x extract -v verbosely list files processed

arping arping [-fqbDUA] [-c count] [-w timeout] [-i device] [-s sender] target

Ping hosts by ARP requests/replies.


-f Quit on first ARP reply -q Be quiet -b Keep broadcasting, don t go unicast -D Duplicated address detection mode -U Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbours -A ARP answer mode, update your neighbours -c count Stop after sending count ARP request packets -w timeout Time to wait for ARP reply, in seconds -i device Outgoing interface name, default is eth0 -s sender Set specific sender IP address target Target IP address of ARP request

ash ash [FILE]... or: ash -c command [args]...

The ash shell (command interpreter)

awk awk [OPTION]... [program-text] [FILE ...]


-v var=val assign value val to variable var -F sep use sep as field separator -f progname read program source from file progname

basename basename FILE [SUFFIX]

Strips directory path and suffixes from FILE. If specified, also removes any trailing SUFFIX.


$ basename /usr/local/bin/foo foo $ basename /usr/local/bin/ bin $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt bar

bbconfig bbconfig

Print the config file which built busybox

bunzip2 bunzip2 [OPTION]... [FILE]

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is - or omitted).


-c Write output to standard output -f Force

busybox busybox

Hello world!

bzcat bzcat FILE

Uncompress to stdout.

cal cal [-jy] [[month] year]

Display a calendar.


-j Use julian dates -y Display the entire year

cat cat [-u] [FILE]...

Concatenates FILE(s) and prints them to stdout.


-u ignored since unbuffered i/o is always used


$ cat /proc/uptime 110716.72 17.67

catv catv [-etv] [FILE]...

Display nonprinting characters as ^x or M-x.

-e End each line with $ -t Show tabs as ^I -v Dont use ^x or M-x escapes.

chattr chattr [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v version] files...

change file attributes on an ext2 fs


- remove attributes + add attributes = set attributes Attributes:

A dont track atime a append mode only c enable compress D write dir contents synchronously d do not backup with dump i cannot be modified (immutable) j write all data to journal first s zero disk storage when deleted S write file contents synchronously t disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files u allow file to be undeleted Options:

-R recursively list subdirectories -v set the file s version/generation number

chgrp chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...

Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP.


-R Changes files and directories recursively


$ ls -l /tmp/foo -r--r--r-- 1 andersen andersen 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo $ chgrp root /tmp/foo $ ls -l /tmp/foo -r--r--r-- 1 andersen root 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

chmod chmod [-R] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst.


-R Changes files and directories recursively


$ ls -l /tmp/foo -rw-rw-r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo $ ls -l /tmp/foo -rwxrw-r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo* $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo $ ls -l /tmp/foo -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

chown chown [ -Rh ]... OWNER[<.:>[GROUP]] FILE...

Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP.


-R Changes files and directories recursively -h Do not dereference symbolic links


$ ls -l /tmp/foo -r--r--r-- 1 andersen andersen 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo $ chown root /tmp/foo $ ls -l /tmp/foo -r--r--r-- 1 root andersen 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo $ chown root.root /tmp/foo ls -l /tmp/foo -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

chroot chroot NEWROOT [COMMAND...]

Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT.


$ ls -l /bin/ls lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox # mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix # chroot /mnt # ls -l /bin/ls -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 40816 Feb 5 07:45 /bin/ls*

chvt chvt N

Changes the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

cksum cksum FILES...

Calculates the CRC32 checksums of FILES.

clear clear

Clear screen.

cmp cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2]

Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified.


-l Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal) for all differing bytes -s quiet mode - do not print

comm comm [-123] FILE1 FILE2

Compares FILE1 to FILE2, or to stdin if = is specified.


-1 Suppress lines unique to FILE1 -2 Suppress lines unique to FILE2 -3 Suppress lines common to both files


Copies SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

-a Same as -dpR -d,-P Preserves links -H,-L Dereference all symlinks (implied by default) -p Preserves file attributes if possible -f force (implied; ignored) - always set -i interactive, prompt before overwrite -R,-r Copies directories recursively

cpio cpio -[dimtuv][F cpiofile]

Extract or list files from a cpio archive Main operation mode:

d make leading directories i extract m preserve mtime t list v verbose u unconditional overwrite F input from file

crond crond -d[#] -c <crondir> -f -b

-d [#] -l [#] -S -L logfile -f -b -c dir -d num debug level -l num log level (8 - default) -S log to syslogd (default) -L file log to file -f run in foreground -b run in background (default) -c dir working dir

crontab crontab [-c dir] {file-}[-u-l-e-d user]

file <opts> replace crontab from file - <opts> replace crontab from stdin -u user specify user -l [user] list crontab for user -e [user] edit crontab for user -d [user] delete crontab for user -c dir specify crontab directory

cut cut [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Prints selected fields from each input FILE to standard output.


-b LIST Output only bytes from LIST -c LIST Output only characters from LIST -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter -s Output only the lines containing delimiter -f N Print only these fields -n Ignored


$ echo "Hello world" cut -f 1 -d Hello $ echo "Hello world" cut -f 2 -d world

date date [OPTION]... [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] [+FORMAT]

Displays the current time in the given FORMAT, or sets the system date.


-R Outputs RFC-822 compliant date string -d STRING Displays time described by STRING, not now USE_FEATURE_DATE_ISOFMT( B<-I>[TIMESPEC] Outputs an ISO-8601 compliant date/time string

TIMESPEC=date (or missing) for date only, hours, minutes, or seconds for date and, time to the indicated precision -D hint Use hint as date format, via strptime() ) B<-s> Sets time described by STRING

-r FILE Displays the last modification time of FILE -u Prints or sets Coordinated Universal Time


$ date Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000

dc dc expression ...

This is a Tiny RPN calculator that understands the following opera- tions: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and, or, not, eor. For example: dc 2 2 add -> 4, and dc 8 8 2 2 + / -> 16.

Options: p - Prints the value on the top of the stack, without altering the stack f - Prints the entire contents of the stack without altering anything o - Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the output radix

Only 10 and 16 are supported


$ dc 2 2 + p 4 $ dc 8 8 2 2 + / p 16 $ dc 0 1 and p 0 $ dc 0 1 or p 1 $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul p dc 64

dd dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] " USE_FEATURE_DD_IBS_OBS("[ibs=N] [obs=N] ") "[bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N] [seek=N]" USE_FEA- TURE_DD_IBS_OBS(" [conv=notruncnoerrorsync]")

Copy a file, converting and formatting according to options

if=FILE read from FILE instead of stdin of=FILE write to FILE instead of stdout bs=N read and write N bytes at a time USE_FEATURE_DD_IBS_OBS(" ibs=N read N bytes at a time ") USE_FEATURE_DD_IBS_OBS(" obs=N write N bytes at a time ") count=N copy only N input blocks

skip=N skip N input blocks seek=N skip N output blocks USE_FEATURE_DD_IBS_OBS( conv=notrunc dont truncate output file conv=noerror continue after read errors conv=sync pad blocks with zeros ) Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824)


$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4 4+0 records in 4+0 records out

deallocvt deallocvt [N]

Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

delgroup delgroup GROUP

Deletes group GROUP from the system

deluser deluser USER

Deletes user USER from the system

devfsd devfsd mntpnt [-v] USE_DEVFSD_FG_NP("[-fg][-np]" )

Optional daemon for managing devfs permissions and old device name symlinks.


mntpnt The mount point where devfs is mounted.

-v Print the protocol version numbers for devfsd and the kernel-side protocol version and exits. USE_DEVFSD_FG_NP( "

-fg Run the daemon in the foreground.

-np Exit after parsing the configuration file and processing synthetic REGISTER events. Do not poll for events.")


Print the filesystem space used and space available.


USE_FEATURE_HUMAN_READABLE( -h print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G ) -m print sizes in megabytes -k print sizes in kilobytes(default) ) SKIP_FEATURE_HUMAN_READABLE(" -k ignored")


$ df Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/sda3 8690864 8553540 137324 98% / /dev/sda1 64216 36364 27852 57% /boot $ df /dev/sda3 Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/sda3 8690864 8553540 137324 98% /

diff diff [-abdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1 FILE2

Compare files line by line and output the differences between them. This diff implementation only supports unified diffs.


-a Treat all files as text -b Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace -d Try hard to find a smaller set of changes -i Ignore case differences -L Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header -N Treat absent files as empty -q Output only whether files differ -r Recursively compare any subdirectories -S Start with FILE when comparing directories -T Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary -s Report when two files are the same -t Expand tabs to spaces in output -U Output LINES lines of context -w Ignore all whitespace

dirname dirname FILENAME

Strips non-directory suffix from FILENAME


$ dirname /tmp/foo /tmp $ dirname /tmp/foo/ /tmp

dmesg dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

Prints or controls the kernel ring buffer


-c Clears the ring buffer s contents after printing -n LEVEL Sets console logging level -s SIZE Use a buffer of size SIZE

dnsd dnsd [-c config] [-t seconds] [-p port] [-i iface-ip] [-d]

Small and static DNS server daemon


-c config filename -t TTL in seconds -p listening port -i listening iface ip (default all) -d daemonize

dos2unix dos2unix [option] [FILE]

Converts FILE from dos format to unix format. When no option is given, the input is converted to the opposite output format. When no file is given, uses stdin for input and stdout for output.


-u output will be in UNIX format -d output will be in DOS format

dpkg dpkg [-ilCPru] [-F option] package_name

dpkg is a utility to install, remove and manage Debian packages.


-i Install the package -l List of installed packages -C Configure an unpackaged package -F depends Ignore dependency problems -P Purge all files of a package -r Remove all but the configuration files for a package -u Unpack a package, but don t configure it

dpkg-deb dpkg-deb [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)


-c List contents of filesystem tree -e Extract control files to [argument] directory -f Display control field name starting with [argument] -x Extract packages filesystem tree to directory -X Verbose extract


$ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp

du du [-aHLdclsx" USE_FEATURE_HUMAN_READABLE("hm") "k] [FILE]...

Summarizes disk space used for each FILE and/or directory. Disk space is printed in units of USE_FEATURE_DU_DEFAULT_BLOCK- SIZE_1K("1024") SKIP_FEATURE_DU_DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE_1K("512") bytes.


-a show sizes of files in addition to directories -H follow symbolic links that are FILE command line args -L follow all symbolic links encountered -d N limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N -c output a grand total -l count sizes many times if hard linked -s display only a total for each argument -x skip directories on different filesystems USE_FEATURE_HUMAN_READABLE( -h print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G ) -m print sizes in megabytes ) -k print sizes in kilobytes USE_FEATURE_DU_DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE_1K("(default)")


$ du 16 ./CVS 12 ./kernel-patches/CVS 80 ./kernel-patches 12 ./tests/CVS 36 ./tests 12 ./scripts/CVS 16 ./scripts 12 ./docs/CVS 104 ./docs 2417 .

dumpkmap dumpkmap > keymap

Prints out a binary keyboard translation table to standard output.


$ dumpkmap > keymap

dumpleases dumpleases [-r-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

Displays the DHCP leases granted by udhcpd.


-f, --file=FILENAME Leases file to load -r, --remaining Interpret lease times as time remaining -a, --absolute Interpret lease times as expire time

e2fsck e2fsck [-panyrcdfvstDFSV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize] [-I inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size] [-l-L bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal] [-E extended-options] device

Check a Linux ext2/ext3 file system.


-p Automatic repair (no questions) -n Make no changes to the filesystem -y Assume yes to all questions -c Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list -f Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean -v Be verbose -b superblock Use alternative superblock -B blocksize Force blocksize when looking for superblock -j journal Set location of the external journal -l file Add to badblocks list -L file Set badblocks list

echo echo USE_FEATURE_FANCY_ECHO("[-neE] ") "[ARG ...]

Prints the specified ARGs to stdout

USE_FEATURE_FANCY_ECHO( Options: -n suppress trailing newline -e interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., =tab) -E disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters )


$ echo "Erik is cool" Erik is cool USE_FEATURE_FANCY_ECHO("$ echo -e "Erik0s0ool" Erik is cool $ echo "Erik0s0ool" Erik0s0ool ")

ed ed #define ed_full_usage

eject eject [-t] [DEVICE]

Eject specified DEVICE (or default /dev/cdrom).


-t close tray

env env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [command]

Prints the current environment or runs a program after setting up the specified environment.


-, -i start with an empty environment -u remove variable from the environment

ether_wake ether_wake [-b] [-i iface] [-p aa:bb:cc:dd[:ee:ff]] MAC

Send a magic packet to wake up sleeping machines. MAC must be a station address (00:11:22:33:44:55) or

a hostname with a known ethers entry.


-b Send wake-up packet to the broadcast address -i iface Use interface ifname instead of the default "eth0" -p pass Append the four or six byte password PW to the packet

expr expr EXPRESSION

Prints the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.


ARG1 ARG2 ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2 ARG1 & ARG2 ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0 ARG1 < ARG2 ARG1 is less than ARG2 ARG1 <= ARG2 ARG1 is less than or equal to ARG2 ARG1 = ARG2 ARG1 is equal to ARG2 ARG1 != ARG2 ARG1 is unequal to ARG2 ARG1 >= ARG2 ARG1 is greater than or equal to ARG2 ARG1 > ARG2 ARG1 is greater than ARG2 ARG1 + ARG2 arithmetic sum of ARG1 and ARG2 ARG1 - ARG2 arithmetic difference of ARG1 and ARG2 ARG1 * ARG2 arithmetic product of ARG1 and ARG2 ARG1 / ARG2 arithmetic quotient of ARG1 divided by ARG2 ARG1 % ARG2 arithmetic remainder of ARG1 divided by ARG2 STRING : REGEXP anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING match STRING REGEXP same as STRING : REGEXP substr STRING POS LENGTH substring of STRING, POS counted from 1 index STRING CHARS index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0 length STRING length of STRING quote TOKEN interpret TOKEN as a string, even if it is a keyword like match or an operator like / ( EXPRESSION ) value of EXPRESSION

Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells. Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else lexico- graphical. Pattern matches return the string matched between and or null; if and are not used, they return the number of characters matched or 0.

fakeidentd fakeidentd [-b ip] [STRING]

Returns a set string to auth requests

-b Bind to ip address STRING The ident answer string (default is nobody)

false false

Return an exit code of FALSE (1).


$ false $ echo $? 1

fbset fbset [options] [mode]

Show and modify frame buffer settings


$ fbset mode "1024x768-76" # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16 timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4 accel false rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0 endmode

fdflush fdflush DEVICE

Forces floppy disk drive to detect disk change

fdformat fdformat [-n] DEVICE

Low-level formats a floppy disk


-n Dont verify after format

fdisk fdisk [-luv] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK

Change partition table Options:

-l List partition table(s) -u Give Start and End in sector (instead of cylinder) units -s PARTITION Give partition size(s) in blocks -b 2048: (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors -C CYLINDERS Set the number of cylinders -H HEADS Set the number of heads -S SECTORS Set the number of sectors -v Give fdisk version

find find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

Search for files in a directory hierarchy. The default PATH is the current directory; default EXPRESSION is -print

EXPRESSION may consist of:

-follow Dereference symbolic links -name PATTERN File name (leading directories removed) matches PATTERN -print Print (default and assumed) USE_FEATURE_FIND_PRINT0( -print0 Delimit output with null characters rather than newlines) USE_FEATURE_FIND_TYPE( -type X Filetype matches X (where X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)) USE_FEATURE_FIND_PERM( -perm PERMS Permissions match any of (+NNN); all of (-NNN); or exactly (NNN)) USE_FEATURE_FIND_MTIME( -mtime DAYS Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N); or exactly (N) days) USE_FEATURE_FIND_MMIN( -mmin MINS Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N); or exactly (N) minutes) USE_FEATURE_FIND_NEWER( -newer FILE Modified time is more recent than FILEs) USE_FEATURE_FIND_INUM( -inum N File has inode number N) USE_FEATURE_FIND_EXEC( -exec CMD Execute CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the files matching EXPRESSION")


$ find / -name passwd /etc/passwd

fold fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]

Wrap input lines in each FILE (standard input by default), writing to standard output.


-b count bytes rather than columns -s break at spaces -w use WIDTH columns instead of 80

free free

Displays the amount of free and used system memory


$ free total used free shared buffers Mem: 257628 248724 8904 59644 93124 Swap: 128516 8404 120112 Total: 386144 257128 129016

freeramdisk freeramdisk DEVICE

Frees all memory used by the specified ramdisk.


$ freeramdisk /dev/ram2

fsck fsck [-ANPRTV] [ -C [ fd ] ] [-t fstype] [fs-options] [filesys ...]

Check and repair filesystems.


-A Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems -N Dont execute, just show what would be done -P When using -A, check filesystems in parallel -R When using -A, skip the root filesystem -T Dont show title on startup -V Verbose mode -C Write status information to specified filedescriptor -t List of filesystem types to check

fsck.minix fsck.minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

Performs a consistency check for MINIX filesystems.


-l Lists all filenames -r Perform interactive repairs -a Perform automatic repairs -v verbose -s Outputs super-block information -m Activates MINIX-like "mode not cleared" warnings -f Force file system check

ftpget ftpget [options] remote-host local-file remote-file

Retrieve a remote file via FTP.


-c, --continue Continue a previous transfer -v, --verbose Verbose -u, --username Username to be used -p, --password Password to be used -P, --port Port number to be used

ftpput ftpput [options] remote-host remote-file local-file

Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP.


-v, --verbose Verbose -u, --username Username to be used -p, --password Password to be used -P, --port Port number to be used

fuser fuser [options] file OR port/proto


-m Show all processes on the same mounted fs -k Kill all processes that match. -s Dont print or kill anything. -4 When using port/proto only search IPv4 space -6 When using port/proto only search IPv6 space -SIGNAL When used with -k, this signal will be used to kill

getopt getopt [OPTIONS]...

Parse command options

-a, --alternative Allow long options starting with single - -l, --longoptions=longopts Long options to be recognized -n, --name=progname The name under which errors are reported -o, --options=optstring Short options to be recognized -q, --quiet Disable error reporting by getopt(3) -Q, --quiet-output No normal output -s, --shell=shell Set shell quoting conventions -T, --test Test for getopt(1) version -u, --unquoted Do not quote the output


$ cat getopt.test #!/bin/sh GETOPT= getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: -n example.busybox -- "$@" if [ $? != 0 ] ; then exit 1 ; fi eval set -- "$GETOPT" while true ; do case $1 in -a--a-long) echo "Option a" ; shift ;; -b --b-long) echo "Option b, argument $2" ; shift 2 ;; -c--c-long) case "$2" in "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2 ;; *) echo "Option c, argument $2" ; shift 2 ;; esac ;; --) shift ; break ;; *) echo "Internal error!" ; exit 1 ;; esac done

getty getty [OPTIONS]... baud_rate,... line [termtype]

Opens a tty, prompts for a login name, then invokes /bin/login


-h Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control -i Do not display /etc/issue before running login -L Local line, so do not do carrier detect -m Get baud rate from modem s CONNECT status message -w Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue -n Do not prompt the user for a login name -f issue_file Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue -l login_app Invoke login_app instead of /bin/login -t timeout Terminate after timeout if no username is read -I initstring Sets the init string to send before anything else -H login_host Log login_host into the utmp file as the hostname


Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.


-H prefix output lines with filename where match was found -h suppress the prefixing filename on output -i ignore case distinctions -l list names of files that match -L list names of files that do not match -n print line number with output lines -q be quiet. Returns 0 if PATTERN was found, 1 otherwise -v select non-matching lines -s suppress file open/read error messages -c only print count of matching lines -f read PATTERN from file -e PATTERN is a regular expression -F PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings USE_FEATURE_GREP_EGREP_ALIAS(" -E PATTERN is an extended regular expression") USE_FEATURE_GREP_CONTEXT(" -A print NUM lines of trailing context") USE_FEATURE_GREP_CONTEXT(" -B print NUM lines of leading context") USE_FEATURE_GREP_CONTEXT(" -C print NUM lines of output context")


$ grep root /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

gunzip gunzip [OPTION]... FILE

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is -).


-c Write output to standard output -f Force read when source is a terminal -t Test compressed file integrity


$ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox* -rw-rw-r-- 1 andersen andersen 557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox* -rw-rw-r-- 1 andersen andersen 1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar

gzip gzip [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Compress FILE(s) with maximum compression. When FILE is - or unspecified, reads standard input. Implies -c.


-c Write output to standard output instead of FILE.gz -d Decompress -f Force write when destination is a terminal


$ ls -la /tmp/busybox* -rw-rw-r-- 1 andersen andersen 1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar $ ls -la /tmp/busybox* -rw-rw-r-- 1 andersen andersen 554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz

halt halt [-d<delay>] [-n<nosync>] [-f<force>]

Halt the system. Options:

-d delay interval for halting -n no call to sync() -f force halt (dont go through init)

hdparm hdparm [options] [device] ..

USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_GET_IDENTITY(" If no device name is specified try to read from stdin. ") Options:

-a get/set fs readahead -A set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1) -b get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate) -B set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255) -c get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting -C check IDE power mode status USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_GETSET_DMA(" -d get/set using_dma flag ") B<-D> enable/disable drive defect-mgmt

-f flush buffer cache for device on exit -g display drive geometry -h display terse usage information USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_GET_IDENTITY(" -i display drive identification ") USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_GET_IDENTITY(" B<-I> detailed/current information directly from drive ") B<-k> get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)

-K set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1) -L set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only) -m get/set multiple sector count -n get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1) -p set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...) -P set drive prefetch count -q change next setting quietly -Q get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported) -r get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set) USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_SCAN_HWIF(" -R register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS) ") B<-S> set standby (spindown) timeout

-t perform device read timings -T perform cache read timings -u get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1) USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_UNREGISTER_HWIF(" -U un-register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS) ") B<-v> defaults; same as B<-mcudkrag> for IDE drives

-V display program version and exit immediately USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_DRIVE_RESET(" -w perform device reset (DANGEROUS) ") B<-W> set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)

USE_FEATURE_HDPARM_HDIO_TRISTATE_HWIF(" -x tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS) ") B<-X> set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)

-y put IDE drive in standby mode -Y put IDE drive to sleep -Z disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode -z re-read partition table

head head [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.


-n NUM Print first NUM lines instead of first 10 USE_FEATURE_FANCY_HEAD( -c NUM output the first NUM bytes -q never output headers giving file names -v always output headers giving file names" )


$ head -n 2 /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh

hexdump hexdump [-[bcCdefnosvx]] [OPTION] FILE

The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or the standard input, if no files are specified, in a user speci- fied format

-b One-byte octal display -c One-byte character display -C Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line -d Two-byte decimal display -e FORMAT STRING -f FORMAT FILE -n LENGTH Interpret only length bytes of input -o Two-byte octal display -s OFFSET Skip offset byte -v display all input data -x Two-byte hexadecimal display

hostid hostid

Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine.

hostname hostname [OPTION] {hostname -F FILE}

Get or set the hostname or DNS domain name. If a hostname is given (or FILE with the -F parameter), the host name will be set.


-s Short -i Addresses for the hostname -d DNS domain name -f Fully qualified domain name -F FILE Use the contents of FILE to specify the hostname


$ hostname sage

httpd httpd [-c <conf file>] USE_FEATURE_HTTPD_WITHOUT_INETD(" [-p <port>]") USE_FEATURE_HTTPD_SETUID(" [-u user]") USE_FEA- TURE_HTTPD_BASIC_AUTH(" [-r <realm>]") USE_FEA- TURE_HTTPD_AUTH_MD5(" [-m pass]") [-h home] [-d/-e <string>]

Listens for incoming http server requests.


-c FILE Specifies configuration file. (default httpd.conf) USE_FEATURE_HTTPD_WITHOUT_INETD(" -p PORT Server port (default 80) ") USE_FEATURE_HTTPD_SETUID(" B<-u> USER Set uid to USER after listening privileges port ") USE_FEATURE_HTTPD_BASIC_AUTH(" B<-r> REALM Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication ") USE_FEATURE_HTTPD_AUTH_MD5(" B<-m> PASS Crypt PASS with md5 algorithm ") B<-h> HOME Specifies http HOME directory (default ./)

-e STRING Html encode STRING -d STRING URL decode STRING

hwclock hwclock [-r--show] [-s--hctosys] [-w--systohc] [-l --local- time] [-u--utc]

Query and set the hardware clock (RTC)


-r read hardware clock and print result -s set the system time from the hardware clock -w set the hardware clock to the current system time -u the hardware clock is kept in coordinated universal time -l the hardware clock is kept in local time


Print information for USERNAME or the current user


-Z prints only the security context -g prints only the group ID -u prints only the user ID -n print a name instead of a number -r prints the real user ID instead of the effective ID


$ id uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)

ifconfig ifconfig [-a] <interface> [<address>]

configure a network interface


[add <address>[/<prefixlen>]] [del <address>[/<prefixlen>]] [[-]broadcast [<address>]] [[-]pointopoint [<address>]] [netmask <address>] [dstaddr <address>] [outfill <NN>] [keepalive <NN>] [hw ether <address>] [metric <NN>] [mtu <NN>] [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti] [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen <NN>] [[-]dynamic] [mem_start <NN>] [io_addr <NN>] [irq <NN>] [updown] ...

ifdown ifdown <-ahinv> <ifaces...>

ifdown <options> <ifaces...>


-h this help -a de/configure all interfaces automatically -i FILE use FILE for interface definitions -n print out what would happen, but dont do it (note that this option doesnt disable mappings) -v print out what would happen before doing it -m dont run any mappings -f force de/configuration

ifup ifup <-ahinv> <ifaces...>

ifup <options> <ifaces...>


-h this help -a de/configure all interfaces automatically -i FILE use FILE for interface definitions -n print out what would happen, but dont do it (note that this option doesn t disable mappings) -v print out what would happen before doing it -m dont run any mappings -f force de/configuration

inetd inetd [-f] [-q len] [conf]

Listens for network connections and launches programs


-f Run as a foreground progress -q Sets the size of the socket listen queue to the specified value. Default is 128

init init

Init is the parent of all processes.

This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel.

BusyBox init doesnt support multiple runlevels. The runlevels field of the /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox init. If you want runlevels, use sysvinit.

BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab. If no inittab is found, it has the following default behavior:

::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS ::askfirst:/bin/sh ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r ::restart:/sbin/init

if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will also run:

tty2::askfirst:/bin/sh tty3::askfirst:/bin/sh tty4::askfirst:/bin/sh

If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format is as follows:



WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init! The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for the specified process to run on. The contents of this field are appended to "/dev/" and used as-is. There is no need for this field to be unique, although if it isnt you may have strange results. If this field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console. Also note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null will be run. BusyBox init does nothing with utmp. We dont need no stinkin utmp.


The runlevels field is completely ignored.


Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait, once, restart, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown.

The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified process exits.

Run only-once actions:

sysinit is the first item run on boot. init waits until all sysinit actions are completed before continuing. Following the completion of all sysinit actions, all wait actions are run. wait actions, like sysinit actions, cause init to wait until the specified task completes. once actions are asynchronous, therefore, init does not wait for them to complete. restart is the action taken to restart the init process. By default this should simply run /sbin/init, but can be a script which runs pivot_root or it can do all sorts of other interesting things. The ctrlaltdel init actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination. Typically one wants to run reboot at this point to cause the system to reboot. Finally the shutdown action specifies the actions to taken when init is told to reboot. Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap is a very good here

Run repeatedly actions:

respawn actions are run after the once actions. When a process started with a respawn action exits, init automatically restarts it. Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from respawning out of control. The askfirst actions acts just like respawn, except that before running the specified process it displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console." and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the specified process.

Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an error message, and then go along with its business. All actions are run in the order they appear in /etc/inittab.


Specifies the process to be executed and its command line.

Example /etc/inittab file:

# This is run first except when booting in single-user mode. # ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS

# /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys # # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be) ::askfirst:-/bin/sh # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4 tty2::askfirst:-/bin/sh tty3::askfirst:-/bin/sh tty4::askfirst:-/bin/sh

# /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys # tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4 tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5

# Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal) # #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100 #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100 # # Example how to put a getty on a modem line. #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2

# Stuff to do when restarting the init process ::restart:/sbin/init

# Stuff to do before rebooting ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a

insmod insmod [OPTION]... MODULE [symbol=value]...

Loads the specified kernel modules into the kernel.


-f Force module to load into the wrong kernel version -k Make module autoclean-able -v verbose output -q quiet output -L Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module -m Output load map to stdout -o NAME Set internal module name to NAME -x do not export externs

install install [-cgmops] [sources] <destdirectory>

Copies files and set attributes


-c copy the file, default -d create directories -g set group ownership -m set permission modes -o set ownership -p preserve date -s strip symbol tables

ip ip [ OPTIONS ] { address link route tunnel } { COM- MAND help }

ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND help } where OBJECT := { link addr route tunnel } OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet inet6 link } -o[neline] }

ipaddr ipaddr { {adddel} IFADDR dev STRING {show flush} [ dev STRING ] [ to PREFIX ] }

ipaddr {add delete} IFADDR dev STRING ipaddr {show flush} [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]

[ to PREFIX ] [ label PATTERN ] IFADDR := PREFIX ADDR peer PREFIX [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ] [ label STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] SCOPE-ID := [ host link global NUMBER ]

ipcalc ipcalc [OPTION]... <ADDRESS>[[/]<NETMASK>] [NETMASK]

Calculate IP network settings from a IP address


-b --broadcast Display calculated broadcast address -n --network Display calculated network address -m --netmask Display default netmask for IP X -p --prefix Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK -h --hostname Display first resolved host name -s --silent Don t ever display error messages

ipcrm ipcrm [-[MQS] key] [-[mqs] id]

The upper-case options MQS are used to remove a shared memory seg- ment by an shmkey value. The lower-case options mqs are used to remove a segment by shmid value.

-m -M Remove the memory segment after the last detach -q -Q Remove the message queue -s -S Remove the semaphore

ipcs ipcs [[-smq] -i shmid] [[-asmq] [-tclup]]

-i specify a specific resource id Resource specification:

-m shared memory segments -q message queues -s semaphore arrays -a all (default) Output format:

-t time -p pid -s creator -a limits -i summary

iplink iplink

iplink set DEVICE { up down arp { on off }

dynamic { on off } mtu MTU } iplink show [ DEVICE ]

iproute iproute { list flush { add del change append replace monitor } ROUTE }

iproute { list flush } SELECTOR iproute get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING ]

[ oif STRING ] [ tos TOS ] iproute { add del change append replace monitor } ROUTE SELECTOR := [ root PREFIX ] [ match PREFIX ] [ proto RTPROTO ] ROUTE := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ proto RTPROTO ]

iptunnel iptunnel { add change del show } [ NAME ] [ mode { ipip gre sit } ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ] [ ttl TTL ]

iptunnel { add change del show } [ NAME ]

[ mode { ipip gre sit } ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ] [ [io]seq ] [ [io]key KEY ] [ [io]csum ] [ ttl TTL ] [ tos TOS ] [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ]

kill kill [-signal] process-id [process-id ...]

Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es).


-l List all signal names and numbers


$ ps grep apache 252 root root S [apache] 263 www-data www-data S [apache] 264 www-data www-data S [apache] 265 www-data www-data S [apache] 266 www-data www-data S [apache] 267 www-data www-data S [apache] $ kill 252

killall killall [-q] [-signal] process-name [process-name ...]

Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es).


-l List all signal names and numbers -q Do not complain if no processes were killed


$ killall apache

klogd klogd [-c n] [-n]

Kernel logger. Options:

-c n Sets the default log level of console messages to n -n Run as a foreground process

lash lash [FILE]... or: sh -c command [args]...

The BusyBox LAme SHell (command interpreter)

This command does not yet have proper documentation.

Use lash just as you would use any other shell. It properly han- dles pipes, redirects, job control, can be used as the shell for scripts, and has a sufficient set of builtins to do what is needed. It does not (yet) support Bourne Shell syntax. If you need things like "if-then-else", "while", and such use ash or bash. If you just need a very simple and extremely small shell, this will do the job.

last last

Shows listing of the last users that logged into the system

length length STRING

Prints out the length of the specified STRING.


$ length Hello 5

less less [-EMNmh~?] FILE1 FILE2...

View a file or list of files. The position within files can be changed, and files can be manipulated in various ways with the fol- lowing options:

-E Quit once the end of a file is reached -M Display a status line containing the current line numbers and the percentage through the file -N Prefix line numbers to each line -m Display a status line containing the percentage through the file -~ Suppress ~s displayed when input past the end of the file is reached. -h, -? Display this help message


Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET

You may use -- to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.


-s make symbolic links instead of hard links -f remove existing destination files -n no dereference symlinks - treat like normal file -b make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation -S suffix use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files


$ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls $ ls -l /tmp/ls lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox*

load_policy load_policy

load SELinux policy


$ load_policy /etc/selinux/strict/policy/policy.17

loadfont loadfont < font

Loads a console font from standard input.


$ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname

loadkmap loadkmap < keymap

Loads a binary keyboard translation table from standard input.


$ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap

logger logger [OPTION]... [MESSAGE]

Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.


-s Log to stderr as well as the system log -t TAG Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name) -p PRIORITY Enter the message with the specified priority This may be numerical or a facility.level pair


$ logger "hello"

login login [OPTION]... [username] [ENV=VAR ...]

Begin a new session on the system


-f Do not authenticate (user already authenticated) -h Name of the remote host for this login -p Preserve environment

logname logname

Print the name of the current user.


$ logname root

logread logread [OPTION]...

Shows the messages from syslogd (using circular buffer).


-f output data as the log grows

losetup losetup [-od] LOOPDEVICE [FILE]

Associate LOOPDEVICE with FILE, or display current association.


-d Disassociate LOOPDEVICE -o OFFSET Start OFFSET bytes into FILE

One argument (losetup /dev/loop1) will display the current associa- tion (if any), or disassociate it (with -d). The display shows the offset and filename of the file the loop device is currently bound to.

Two arguments (losetup /dev/loop1 file.img) create a new associa- tion, with an optional offset (-o 12345). Encryption is not yet supported.

ls ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxX" USE_FEATURE_HUMAN_READ- ABLE("h") "kK] [filenames...]

List directory contents


-1 list files in a single column -A do not list implied . and .. -a do not hide entries starting with . -C list entries by columns -c with -l: show ctime --color[={always,never,auto}] to control coloring -d list directory entries instead of contents -e list both full date and full time -F append indicator (one of */=@ ) to entries -i list the i-node for each file -l use a long listing format -n list numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names -p append indicator (one of /=@ ) to entries -L list entries pointed to by symbolic links -R list subdirectories recursively -r sort the listing in reverse order -S sort the listing by file size -s list the size of each file, in blocks -T NUM assume Tabstop every NUM columns -t with -l: show modification time -u with -l: show access time -v sort the listing by version -w NUM assume the terminal is NUM columns wide -x list entries by lines instead of by columns -X sort the listing by extension USE_FEATURE_HUMAN_READABLE( -h print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G ) ") B<-k> print security context

-K print security context in long format

lsattr lsattr [-Radlv] [files...]

list file attributes on an ext2 fs


-R recursively list subdirectories -a do not hide entries starting with . -d list directory entries instead of contents -l print long flag names -v list the file s version/generation number

lsmod lsmod

List the currently loaded kernel modules.

lzmacat lzmacat FILE

Uncompress to stdout.

makedevs makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir

Creates a range of special files as specified in a device table. Device table entries take the form of: <type> <mode> <uid> <gid> <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count> Where name is the file name, type can be one of:

f A regular file d Directory c Character special device file b Block special device file p Fifo (named pipe) uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the target file. The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to to device special files. A - may be used for blank entries.


For example: <name> <type> <mode><uid><gid><major><minor><start><inc><count> /dev d 755 0 0 - - - - - /dev/console c 666 0 0 5 1 - - - /dev/null c 666 0 0 1 3 0 0 - /dev/zero c 666 0 0 1 5 0 0 - /dev/hda b 640 0 0 3 0 0 0 - /dev/hda b 640 0 0 3 1 1 1 15

Will Produce: /dev /dev/console /dev/null /dev/zero /dev/hda /dev/hda[0-15]

md5sum md5sum [OPTION] [FILEs...] or: md5sum [OPTION] -c [FILE]

Print or check MD5 checksums.

Options: With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

-c check MD5 sums against given list

The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums:

-s don t output anything, status code shows success -w warn about improperly formated MD5 checksum lines


$ md5sum < busybox 6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003 $ md5sum busybox 6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003 busybox $ md5sum -c - 6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003 busybox busybox: OK ^D

mdev mdev [-s]

-s Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot

Called with no options (via hotplug) it uses environment variables to determine which device to add/remove.

USE_FEATURE_MDEV_CONFIG( The mdev config file contains lines that look like: hd[a-z][0-9]* 0:3 660

That s device name (with regex match), uid:gid, and permissions.

USE_FEATURE_MDEV_EXEC( Optionally, that can be followed (on the same line) by a special character and a command line to run after creating/before deleting the corresponding device(s). The environment variable $MDEV indicates the active device node (which is useful if its a regex match). For example:

hdc root:cdrom 660 *ln -s $MDEV cdrom

The special characters are @ (run after creating), $ (run before deleting), and * (run both after creating and before deleting). The commands run in the /dev directory, and use system() which calls /bin/sh.

) Config file parsing stops on the first matching line. If no config entry is matched, devices are created with default 0:0 660. (Make the last line match .* to override this.)


mesg mesg [yn]

mesg controls write access to your terminal

y Allow write access to your terminal n Disallow write access to your terminal

mkdir mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY...

Create the DIRECTORY(ies) if they do not already exist


-m set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask -p no error if existing, make parent directories as needed


$ mkdir /tmp/foo $ mkdir /tmp/foo /tmp/foo: File exists $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz

mke2fs mke2fs [-c -l filename] [-b block-size] [-f fragment-size] [-g blocks-per-group] [-i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-N number-of-inodes] [-n] [-m reserved-blocks-percentage] [-o cre- ator-os] [-O feature[,...]] [-q] [r fs-revision-level] [-E extended-options] [-v] [-F] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-directory] [-S] [-T filesystem-type] device [blocks-count]

-b size block size in bytes -c check for bad blocks before creating -E opts set extended options -f size fragment size in bytes -F force (ignore sanity checks) -g num number of blocks in a block group -i ratio the bytes/inode ratio -j create a journal (ext3) -J opts set journal options (size/device) -l file read bad blocks list from file -L lbl set the volume label -m percent percent of fs blocks to reserve for admin -M dir set last mounted directory -n do not actually create anything -N num number of inodes to create -o os set the creator os field -O features dir_index/filetype/has_journal/journal_dev/sparse_super -q quiet execution -r rev set filesystem revision -S write superblock and group descriptors only -T fs-type set usage type (news/largefile/largefile4) -v verbose execution

mkfifo mkfifo [OPTIONS] name

Creates a named pipe (identical to mknod name p)


-m create the pipe using the specified mode (default a=rw)

mkfs.minix mkfs.minix [-c -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks]

Make a MINIX filesystem.


-c Check the device for bad blocks -n [1430] Specify the maximum length of filenames -i INODES Specify the number of inodes for the filesystem -l FILENAME Read the bad blocks list from FILENAME -v Make a Minix version 2 filesystem


Create a special file (block, character, or pipe).


-m create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)

TYPEs include:

b: Make a block (buffered) device c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device p: Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes


$ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0 $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p

mkswap mkswap [-c] [-v0-v1] device [block-count]

Prepare a disk partition to be used as a swap partition.


-c Check for read-ability -v0 Make version 0 swap [max 128 Megs] -v1 Make version 1 swap [big!] (default for kernels > 2.1.117) block-count Number of block to use (default is entire partition)

mktemp mktemp [-dq] TEMPLATE

Creates a temporary file with its name based on TEMPLATE. TEMPLATE is any name with six Xs (i.e., /tmp/temp.XXXXXX).


-d Make a directory instead of a file -q Fail silently if an error occurs


$ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX /tmp/temp.mWiLjM $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM -rw------- 1 andersen andersen 0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

modprobe modprobe [-knqrsv] MODULE [symbol=value ...]


-k Make module autoclean-able -n Just show what would be done -q Quiet output -r Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean -s Report via syslog instead of stderr -v Verbose output

modprobe can (un)load a stack of modules, passing each module options (when loading). modprobe uses a configuration file to determine what option(s) to pass each module it loads.

The configuration file is searched (in order) amongst:

/etc/modprobe.conf (2.6 only) /etc/modules.conf /etc/conf.modules (deprecated)

They all have the same syntax (see below). If none is present, it is _not_ an error; each loaded module is then expected to load without options. Once a file is found, the others are tested for.

/etc/modules.conf entry format:

alias <alias_name> <mod_name> Makes it possible to modprobe alias_name, when there is no such module. It makes sense if your mod_name is long, or you want a more representative name for that module (eg. scsi in place of aha7xxx ). This makes it also possible to use a different set of options (below) for the module and the alias. A module can be aliased more than once.

options <mod_namealias_name> <symbol=value ...> When loading module mod_name (or the module aliased by alias_name), pass the "symbol=value" pairs as option to that module.

Sample /etc/modules.conf file:

options tulip irq=3 alias tulip tulip2 options tulip2 irq=4 io=0x308

Other functionality offered by classic modprobe is not available in this implementation.

If module options are present both in the config file, and on the command line, then the options from the command line will be passed to the module _after_ the options from the config file. That way, you can have defaults in the config file, and override them for a specific usage from the command line.


(with the above /etc/modules.conf):

$ modprobe tulip will load the module tulip with default option irq=3

$ modprobe tulip irq=5 will load the module tulip with option irq=5, thus overriding the default

$ modprobe tulip2 will load the module tulip with default options irq=4 io=0x308, which are the default for alias tulip2

$ modprobe tulip2 irq=8 will load the module tulip with default options irq=4 io=0x308 irq=8, which are the default for alias tulip2 overridden by the option irq=8

from the command line

$ modprobe tulip2 irq=2 io=0x210 will load the module tulip with default options irq=4 io=0x308 irq=4 io=0x210, which are the default for alias tulip2 overridden by the options irq=2 io=0x210

from the command line

more more [FILE ...]

More is a filter for viewing FILE one screenful at a time.


$ dmesg more

mount mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options]

Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc be mounted.


-a: Mount all filesystems in fstab -f: "Fake" Add entry to mount table but dont mount it -n: Dont write a mount table entry -o option: One of many filesystem options, listed below -r: Mount the filesystem read-only -t fs-type: Specify the filesystem type -w: Mount for reading and writing (default)

Options for use with the "-o" flag:

async/sync: Writes are asynchronous / synchronous atime/noatime: Enable / disable updates to inode access times dev/nodev: Allow use of special device files / disallow them exec/noexec: Allow use of executable files / disallow them loop: Ignored (loop devices are autodetected) suid/nosuid: Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them remount: Re-mount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags ro/rw: Mount for read-only / read-write bind: Bind a directory to an additional location move: Relocate an existing mount point.

There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem Youll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems

Returns 0 for success, number of failed mounts for -a, or errno for one mount.


$ mount /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw) proc on /proc type proc (rw) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw) $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop $ mount cd_image.iso mydir

mountpoint mountpoint [-q] <[-d] DIR -x DEVICE>

mountpoint checks if the directory is a mountpoint


-q: Be more quiet -d: Print major/minor device number of the filesystem -x: Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice


$ mountpoint /proc /proc is not a mountpoint $ mountpoint /sys /sys is a mountpoint

mt mt [-f device] opcode value

Control magnetic tape drive operation

Available Opcodes:

bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock weof wset


Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.


-f dont prompt before overwriting -i interactive, prompt before overwrite


$ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar

nameif nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]

Nameif renaming network interface while it in the down state.


-c FILE Use configuration file (default is /etc/mactab) -s Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility) IFNAME MACADDR new_interface_name interface_mac_address


$ nameif -s dmz0 00:A0:C9:8C:F6:3F or $ nameif -c /etc/my_mactab_file

nc nc [OPTIONS] [IP] [port]

Netcat opens a pipe to IP:port


-l listen mode, for inbound connects -p PORT local port number -i SECS delay interval for lines sent -e PROG program to exec after connect (dangerous!) -w SECS timeout for connects and final net reads


$ nc foobar.somedomain.com 25 220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600 help 214-Commands supported: 214- HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH 214 NOOP QUIT RSET HELP quit 221 foobar closing connection

netstat netstat [-laenrtuwx]

Netstat displays Linux networking information.


-l display listening server sockets -a display all sockets (default: connected) -e display other/more information -n dont resolve names -r display routing table -t tcp sockets -u udp sockets -w raw sockets -x unix sockets

nice nice [-n ADJUST] [COMMAND [ARG] ...]

Nice runs a program with modified scheduling priority.


-n ADJUST Adjust the scheduling priority by ADJUST

nohup nohup COMMAND [ARGS]

run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty


$ nohup make &

nslookup nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

Queries the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST option- ally using a specified DNS server


$ nslookup localhost Server: default Address: default

Name: debian Address:

od od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [FILE]

Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to standard output. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

openvt openvt <vtnum> <COMMAND> [ARGS...]

Start a command on a new virtual terminal


openvt 2 /bin/ash

passwd passwd [OPTION] [name]

Change a user password. If no name is specified, changes the pass- word for the current user. Options:

-a Define which algorithm shall be used for the password (Choices: des, md5 PASSWORD_ALG_TYPES(", sha1") ) -d Delete the password for the specified user account -l Locks (disables) the specified user account -u Unlocks (re-enables) the specified user account

patch patch [-p<num>] [-i <diff>]

-p <num> Strip <num> leading components from file names -i <diff> Read <diff> instead of stdin


$ patch -p1 < example.diff $ patch -p0 -i example.diff

pidof pidof process-name [OPTION] [process-name ...]

Lists the PIDs of all processes with names that match the names on the command line.

USAGE_PIDOF -s display only a single PID -o omit given pid. Use %PPID to omit the parent pid of pidof itself


$ pidof init 1 $ pidof /bin/sh 20351 5973 5950 $ pidof /bin/sh -o %PPID 20351 5950

ping ping [OPTION]... host

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts.


-c COUNT Send only COUNT pings -s SIZE Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56) -q Quiet mode, only displays output at start and when finished


$ ping localhost PING slag ( 56 data bytes 64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=20.1 ms

--- debian ping statistics --- 1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

ping6 ping6 [OPTION]... host

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts.


-c COUNT Send only COUNT pings -s SIZE Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56) -q Quiet mode, only displays output at start and when finished


$ ping6 ip6-localhost PING ip6-localhost (::1): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from ::1: icmp6_seq=0 ttl=64 time=20.1 ms

--- ip6-localhost ping statistics --- 1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

pivot_root pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the new root file system.

poweroff poweroff [-d<delay>] [-n<nosync>] [-f<force>]

Halt and shut off power. Options:

-d delay interval for halting -n no call to sync() -f force power off (don t go through init)

printenv printenv [VARIABLES...]

print all or part of environment

If no environment VARIABLE specified, print them all.

printf printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]

Formats and prints ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, Where FORMAT controls the output exactly as in C printf.


$ printf "Val=%d0 5 Val=5

ps ps

Report process status

USAGE_PS -Z show SE Linux context w wide output


$ ps PID Uid Gid State Command 1 root root S init 2 root root S [kflushd] 3 root root S [kupdate] 4 root root S [kpiod] 5 root root S [kswapd] 742 andersen andersen S [bash] 743 andersen andersen S -bash 745 root root S [getty] 2990 andersen andersen R ps

pwd pwd

Print the full filename of the current working directory.


$ pwd /root

rdate rdate [-sp] HOST

Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST.


-s Set the system date and time (default) -p Print the date and time

readlink readlink [-f] FILE

Displays the value of a symbolic link.


-f canonicalize by following all symlinks

readprofile readprofile [OPTIONS]...


-m <mapfile> (default: /boot/System.map) -p <profile> (default: /proc/profile) -M <mult> set the profiling multiplier to <mult> -i print only info about the sampling step -v print verbose data -a print all symbols, even if count is 0 -b print individual histogram-bin counts -s print individual counters within functions -r reset all the counters (root only) -n disable byte order auto-detection

realpath realpath pathname ...

Returns the absolute pathnames of given argument.

reboot reboot [-d<delay>] [-n<nosync>] [-f<force>]

Reboot the system. Options:

-d delay interval for rebooting -n no call to sync() -f force reboot (dont go through init)

renice renice {{-n INCREMENT} PRIORITY} [[ -p -g -u ] ID ...]

Changes priority of running processes.


-n adjusts current nice value (smaller is faster) -p process id(s) (default) -g process group id(s) -u process user name(s) and/or id(s)

reset reset

Resets the screen.

rm rm [OPTION]... FILE...

Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). You may use -- to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.


-i always prompt before removing each destination -f remove existing destinations, never prompt -r or -R remove the contents of directories recursively


$ rm -rf /tmp/foo

rmdir rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

Remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty.


# rmdir /tmp/foo

rmmod rmmod [OPTION]... [MODULE]...

Unloads the specified kernel modules from the kernel.


-a Remove all unused modules (recursively)


$ rmmod tulip

route route [{adddeldelete}]

Edit the kernels routing tables.


-n Dont resolve names -e Display other/more information -A inet{6} Select address family

rpm rpm -i -q[ildc]p package.rpm

Manipulates RPM packages


-i Install package -q Query package -p Query uninstalled package -i Show information -l List contents -d List documents -c List config files

rpm2cpio rpm2cpio package.rpm

Outputs a cpio archive of the rpm file.

run-parts run-parts [-t] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

Run a bunch of scripts in a directory.


-t Prints what would be run, but does not actually run anything -a ARG Pass ARG as an argument for every program invoked -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before executing every program

runlevel runlevel [utmp]


$ runlevel /var/run/utmp N 2

rx rx FILE

Receive a file using the xmodem protocol.


$ rx /tmp/foo

sed sed [-efinr] pattern [files...]


-e script add the script to the commands to be executed -f scriptfile add script-file contents to the commands to be executed -i edit files in-place -n suppress automatic printing of pattern space -r use extended regular expression syntax

If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as the sed script to interpret. All remaining arguments are names of input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read. Source files will not be modified unless -i option is given.


$ echo "foo" sed -e s/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g bar

seq seq [first [increment]] last

Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INCREMENT. FIRST, INCREMENT default to 1 Arguments:


setarch setarch <personality> <program> [args ...]

Personality may be:

linux32 Set 32bit uname emulation linux64 Set 64bit uname emulation

setconsole setconsole [-r--reset] [DEVICE]

Redirects system console output to DEVICE (default: /dev/tty).


-r Reset output to /dev/console.

setkeycodes setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE ...

Set entries into the kernels scancode-to-keycode map, allowing unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is given in decimal


$ setkeycodes e030 127

setlogcons setlogcons N

Redirects the kernel output to console N (0 for current).

setsid setsid program [arg ...]

Runs any program in a new session by calling setsid() before exec ing the rest of its arguments. See setsid(2) for details.

sha1sum sha1sum [OPTION] [FILEs...] or: sha1sum [OPTION] -c [FILE]

Print or check SHA1 checksums.

Options: With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

-c check SHA1 sums against given list

The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums:

-s don t output anything, status code shows success -w warn about improperly formated SHA1 checksum lines

sleep sleep [N]...

Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays.


$ sleep 2 [2 second delay results] $ sleep 1d 3h 22m 8s [98528 second delay results]

sort sort [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o outfile] [-k start[.off- set][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t char] [FILE]...

Sorts lines of text in the specified files


-b ignore leading blanks -c check whether input is sorted -d dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only) -f ignore case -g general numerical sort -i ignore unprintable characters -k specify sort key -M sort month -n sort numbers -o output to file -k sort by key -t use key separator other than whitespace -r reverse sort order -s stable (dont sort ties alphabetically) -u suppress duplicate lines -z input terminated by nulls, not newlines -mST ignored for GNU compatibility


$ echo -e "e00000" sort a b c d e f $ echo -e "c 30 20 2" $SORT -k 2,2n -k 1,1r d 2 b 2 c 3

start-stop-daemon start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [--start --stop] ... [-- arguments...]

Program to start and stop services.


-S--start start -K--stop stop -a--startas <pathname> starts process specified by pathname -b --background force process into background -u--user <username><uid> stop this user s processes -x --exec <executable> program to either start or check -m--make-pidfile <filename> create the -p file and enter pid in it -n --name <process-name> stop processes with this name -p--pidfile <pid-file> save or load pid using a pid-file -q --quiet be quietUSE_FEATURE_START_STOP_DAEMON_FANCY( -o--oknodo exit status 0 if nothing done -v--verbose be verbose) -s --signal <signal> signal to send (default TERM)

stat stat [OPTION] FILE...

display file (default) or filesystem status.


-c fmt use the specified format -f display filesystem status -L,-l dereference links -t display info in terse form

Valid format sequences for files:

%a Access rights in octal %A Access rights in human readable form %b Number of blocks allocated (see %B) %B The size in bytes of each block reported by %b %d Device number in decimal %D Device number in hex %f Raw mode in hex %F File type %g Group ID of owner %G Group name of owner %h Number of hard links %i Inode number %n File name %N Quoted file name with dereference if symbolic link %o I/O block size %s Total size, in bytes %t Major device type in hex %T Minor device type in hex %u User ID of owner %U User name of owner %x Time of last access %X Time of last access as seconds since Epoch %y Time of last modification %Y Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch %z Time of last change %Z Time of last change as seconds since Epoch

Valid format sequences for file systems:

%a Free blocks available to non-superuser %b Total data blocks in file system %c Total file nodes in file system %d Free file nodes in file system %f Free blocks in file system %i File System ID in hex %l Maximum length of filenames %n File name %s Block size (for faster transfers) %S Fundamental block size (for block counts) %t Type in hex %T Type in human readable form

strings strings [-afo] [-n length] [file ... ]

Display printable strings in a binary file.


-a Scan the whole files (this is the default). -f Precede each string with the name of the file where it was found. -n N Specifies that at least N characters forms a sequence (default 4) -o Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file

stty stty [-ag] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and devia- tions from stty sane.


-F DEVICE open device instead of stdin -a print all current settings in human-readable form -g print in stty-readable form [SETTING] see manpage

su su [OPTION]... [-] [username]

Change user id or become root. Options:

-p, -m Preserve environment -c Command to pass to sh -c -s Shell to use instead of default shell

sulogin sulogin [OPTION]... [tty-device]

Single user login Options:

-f Do not authenticate (user already authenticated) -h Name of the remote host for this login -p Preserve environment

sum sum [rs] [files...]

checksum and count the blocks in a file


-r use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks) -s use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks)

swapoff swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]

Stop swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE.


-a Stop swapping on all swap devices

swapon swapon [-a] [DEVICE]

Start swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE.


-a Start swapping on all swap devices

switch_root switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGUMENTS_TO_INIT]

Use from PID 1 under initramfs to free initramfs, chroot to NEW_ROOT, and exec NEW_INIT.


-c Redirect console to device on new root

sync sync

Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk.

sysctl sysctl [OPTIONS]... [VALUE]...

configure kernel parameters at runtime


-n Use this option to disable printing of the key name when printing values -w Use this option when you want to change a sysctl setting -p Load in sysctl settings from the file specified or /etc/sysctl.conf if none given -a Display all values currently available -A Display all values currently available in table form


sysctl [-n] variable ... sysctl [-n] -w variable=value ... sysctl [-n] -a sysctl [-n] -p <file> (default /etc/sysctl.conf) sysctl [-n] -A

syslogd syslogd [OPTION]...

Linux system and kernel logging utility. Note that this version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf.


-m MIN Minutes between MARK lines (default=20, 0=off) -n Run as a foreground process -O FILE Use an alternate log file (default=/var/log/messages) -S Make logging output smaller. -s SIZE Max size (KB) before rotate (default=200KB, 0=off) -b NUM Number of rotated logs to keep (default=1, max=99, 0=purge) -R HOST[:PORT] Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP) -L Log locally and via network logging (default is network only) -C [size(KiB)] Log to a circular buffer (read the buffer using logread)


$ syslogd -R masterlog:514 $ syslogd -R

tail tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.


-c N[kbm] output the last N bytes -n N[kbm] print last N lines instead of last 10 -f output data as the file grows -q never output headers giving file names -s SEC wait SEC seconds between reads with -f -v always output headers giving file names

If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a +, output begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last N items in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).


$ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf nameserver

tar tar -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE][-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)] ...

Create, extract, or list files from a tar file.


c create x extract t list

Archive format selection:

z Filter the archive through gzip j Filter the archive through bzip2 a Filter the archive through lzma Z Filter the archive through compress

File selection:

f name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin O extract to stdout exclude file to exclude X file with names to exclude C change to directory DIR before operation v verbosely list files processed


$ zcat /tmp/tarball.tar.gz tar -xf - $ tar -cf /tmp/tarball.tar /usr/local

tee tee [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output.


-a append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite -i ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)


$ echo "Hello" tee /tmp/foo $ cat /tmp/foo Hello

telnet telnet HOST [PORT]

Telnet is used to establish interactive communication with another computer over a network using the TELNET protocol.

telnetd telnetd [OPTION]

Telnetd listens for incoming TELNET connections on PORT. Options:

-p PORT listen for connections on PORT (default 23) -l LOGIN exec LOGIN on connect (default /bin/sh) -f issue_file Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue


Checks file types and compares values returning an exit code deter- mined by the value of EXPRESSION.


$ test 1 -eq 2 $ echo $? 1 $ test 1 -eq 1 $ echo $? 0 $ [ -d /etc ] $ echo $? 0 $ [ -d /junk ] $ echo $? 1

tftp tftp [OPTION]... HOST [PORT]

Transfers a file from/to a tftp server using "octet" mode.


-l FILE Local FILE -r FILE Remote FILE -g Get file -p Put file -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets

time time [OPTION]... COMMAND [ARGS...]

Runs the program COMMAND with arguments ARGS. When COMMAND fin- ishes, COMMAND s resource usage information is displayed


-v Displays verbose resource usage information

top top [-d <seconds>]

top provides an view of processor activity in real time. This utility reads the status for all processes in /proc each <seconds> and shows the status for however many processes will fit on the screen. This utility will not show processes that are started after program startup, but it will show the EXIT status for and PIDs that exit while it is running.

touch touch [-c] FILE [FILE ...]

Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s].


-c Do not create any files


$ ls -l /tmp/foo /bin/ls: /tmp/foo: No such file or directory $ touch /tmp/foo $ ls -l /tmp/foo -rw-rw-r-- 1 andersen andersen 0 Apr 15 01:11 /tmp/foo

tr tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input, writing to standard output.


-c take complement of STRING1 -d delete input characters coded STRING1 -s squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character


$ echo "gdkkn vnqkc" tr [a-y] [b-z] hello world

traceroute traceroute [-FIldnrv] [-f 1st_ttl] [-m max_ttl] [-p port#] [-q nqueries] [-s src_addr] [-t tos] [-w wait] [-g gateway] [-i iface] [-z pausemsecs] host [data size]

trace the route ip packets follow going to "host" Options:

-F Set the dont fragment bit -I Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams -l Display the ttl value of the returned packet -d Set SO_DEBUG options to socket -n Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically -r Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host -v Verbose output -m max_ttl Set the max time-to-live (max number of hops) -p port# Set the base UDP port number used in probes (default is 33434) -q nqueries Set the number of probes per ttl to nqueries (default is 3) -s src_addr Use the following IP address as the source address -t tos Set the type-of-service in probe packets to the following value (default 0) -w wait Set the time (in seconds) to wait for a response to a probe (default 3 sec) -g Specify a loose source route gateway (8 maximum)

true true

Return an exit code of TRUE (0).


$ true $ echo $? 0

tty tty

Print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input.


-s print nothing, only return an exit status


$ tty /dev/tty2

tune2fs tune2fs [-c max-mounts-count] [-e errors-behavior] [-g group] [-i interval[dmw]] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-l] [-s sparse-flag] [-m reserved-blocks-percent] [-o [^]mount-options[,...]] [-r reserved-blocks-count] [-u user] [-C mount-count] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-dir] [-O [^]fea- ture[,...]] [-T last-check-time] [-U UUID] device

Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems.

udhcpc udhcpc [-Cfbnqtv] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i INTER- FACE] [-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script]

-c, --clientid=CLIENTID Set client identifier -C, --clientid-none Suppress default client identifier -V, --vendorclass=CLASSID Set vendor class identifier -H, --hostname=HOSTNAME Client hostname -h, Alias for -H -f, --foreground Do not fork after getting lease -b, --background Fork to background if lease cannot be immediately negotiated -i, --interface=INTERFACE Interface to use (default: eth0) -n, --now Exit with failure if lease cannot be immediately negotiated -p, --pidfile=file Store process ID of daemon in file -q, --quit Quit after obtaining lease -r, --request=IP IP address to request (default: none) -s, --script=file Run file at dhcp events (default: /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script) -t, --retries=NUM Send up to NUM request packets -v, --version Display version

udhcpd udhcpd [configfile]

umount umount [flags] FILESYSTEMDIRECTORY

Unmount file systems


-a Unmount all file systems in /etc/mtab -n Dont erase /etc/mtab entries -r Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy -l Lazy umount (detach filesystem) -f Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server) -D Do not free loop device (if a loop device has been used)


$ umount /dev/hdc1

uname uname [OPTION]...

Print certain system information. With no OPTION, same as -s.


-a print all information -m the machine (hardware) type -n print the machine s network node hostname -r print the operating system release -s print the operating system name -p print the host processor type -v print the operating system version


$ uname -a Linux debian 2.4.23 #2 Tue Dec 23 17:09:10 MST 2003 i686 GNU/Linux

uncompress uncompress [-c] [-f] [ name ... ]

Uncompress .Z file[s] Options:

-c extract to stdout -f force overwrite an existing file

uniq uniq [-fscdu]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

Discard all but one of successive identical lines from INPUT (or standard input), writing to OUTPUT (or standard output).


-c prefix lines by the number of occurrences -d only print duplicate lines -u only print unique lines -f N skip the first N fields -s N skip the first N chars (after any skipped fields)


$ echo -e "a00000" sort uniq a b c

unix2dos unix2dos [option] [FILE]

Converts FILE from unix format to dos format. When no option is given, the input is converted to the opposite output format. When no file is given, uses stdin for input and stdout for output. Options:

-u output will be in UNIX format -d output will be in DOS format

unlzma unlzma [OPTION]... [FILE]

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is - or omitted).


-c Write output to standard output -f Force

unzip unzip [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d exdir]

Extracts files from ZIP archives.


-l list archive contents (short form) -n never overwrite existing files (default) -o overwrite files without prompting -p send output to stdout -q be quiet -x exclude these files -d extract files into this directory

uptime uptime

Display the time since the last boot.


$ uptime 1:55pm up 2:30, load average: 0.09, 0.04, 0.00

usleep usleep N

Pause for N microseconds.


$ usleep 1000000 [pauses for 1 second]

uudecode uudecode [FILE]...

Uudecode a file that is uuencoded.


-o FILE direct output to FILE


$ uudecode -o busybox busybox.uu $ ls -l busybox -rwxr-xr-x 1 ams ams 245264 Jun 7 21:35 busybox

uuencode uuencode [OPTION] [INFILE] REMOTEFILE

Uuencode a file.


-m use base64 encoding per RFC1521


$ uuencode busybox busybox begin 755 busybox <encoded file snipped> $ uudecode busybox busybox > busybox.uu $

vconfig vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS] ...

vconfig lets you create and remove virtual ethernet devices.


add [interface-name] [vlan_id] rem [vlan-name] set_flag [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 1] set_egress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos] set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos] set_name_type [name-type]

vi vi [OPTION] [FILE]...

edit FILE.


-R Read-only- do not write to the file

vlock vlock [OPTIONS]

Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock Options:

-a Lock all VTs

watch watch [-n <seconds>] COMMAND...

Executes a program periodically. Options:

-n Loop period in seconds - default is 2


$ watch date Mon Dec 17 10:31:40 GMT 2000 Mon Dec 17 10:31:42 GMT 2000 Mon Dec 17 10:31:44 GMT 2000

watchdog watchdog [-t <seconds>] [-F] DEV

Periodically write to watchdog device DEV. Options:

-t Timer period in seconds - default is 30 -F Stay in the foreground and dont fork

wc wc [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard input.


-c print the byte counts -l print the newline counts -L print the length of the longest line -w print the word counts


$ wc /etc/passwd 31 46 1365 /etc/passwd

wget wget [-c --continue] [-q --quiet] [-O --output-document file] [--header header: value] [-Y--proxy on/off] [-P DIR] url

wget retrieves files via HTTP or FTP


-c continue retrieval of aborted transfers -q quiet mode - do not print -P Set directory prefix to DIR -O save to filename (- for stdout) -Y use proxy (on or off)

which which [COMMAND ...]

Locates a COMMAND.


$ which login /bin/login

who who

Prints the current user names and related information

whoami whoami

Prints the user name associated with the current effective user id.

xargs xargs [COMMAND] [OPTIONS] [ARGS...]

Executes COMMAND on every item given by standard input.


-p Prompt the user about whether to run each command -r Do not run command for empty read lines -x Exit if the size is exceeded -0 Input filenames are terminated by a null character -t Print the command line on stderr before executing it


$ ls xargs gzip $ find . -name *.c -print xargs rm

yes yes [OPTION]... [STRING]...

Repeatedly outputs a line with all specified STRING(s), or y.

zcat zcat FILE

Uncompress to stdout.

zcip zcip [OPTIONS] ifname script

zcip manages a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address. Options:

-f foreground mode -q quit after address (no daemon) -r 169.254.x.x request this address first -v verbose

LIBC NSS GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information. This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries. BusyBox tries to avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS. Some applets however, such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal func- tions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/shadow files without using NSS. This may allow you to run your system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration files and libraries.

When used with glibc, the BusyBox networking applets will similarly require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in par- ticular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*, and /lib/libresolv*).

Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as uClibc. In addition to making your system significantly smaller, uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.

MAINTAINER Rob Landley <rob@landley.net>

AUTHORS The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or not. If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory. If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done needs more detail, or is incorect, please send in an update.

Emanuele Aina <emanuele.aina@tiscali.it> run-parts

Erik Andersen <andersen@codepoet.org>

Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files. Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that nobody is going to actually read.

Laurence Anderson <l.d.anderson@warwick.ac.uk>

rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm

Jeff Angielski <jeff@theptrgroup.com>

ftpput, ftpget

Edward Betts <edward@debian.org>

expr, hostid, logname, whoami

John Beppu <beppu@codepoet.org>

du, nslookup, sort

Brian Candler <B.Candler@pobox.com>


Randolph Chung <tausq@debian.org>

fbset, ping, hostname

Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>

more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file, various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

Jordan Crouse <jordan@cosmicpenguin.net>


Magnus Damm <damm@opensource.se>

tftp client insmod powerpc support

Larry Doolittle <ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov>

pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

Glenn Engel <glenne@engel.org>


Gennady Feldman <gfeldman@gena01.com>

Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support, logread), various fixes.

Karl M. Hegbloom <karlheg@debian.org>

cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

Daniel Jacobowitz <dan@debian.org>


Matt Kraai <kraai@alumni.cmu.edu>

documentation, bugfixes, test suite

Stephan Linz <linz@li-pro.net>

ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence

John Lombardo <john@deltanet.com>


Glenn McGrath <bug1@iinet.net.au>

Common unarchving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput, nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode. Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.

Manuel Novoa III <mjn3@codepoet.org>

cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes, mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string, get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines

also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir, mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable, interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

Vladimir Oleynik <dzo@simtreas.ru>

cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current); ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top; locale, various fixes and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

Bruce Perens <bruce@pixar.com>

Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can still be found hiding here and there...

Tim Riker <Tim@Rikers.org>

bug fixes, member of fan club

Kent Robotti <robotti@metconnect.com>

reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.

Chip Rosenthal <chip@unicom.com>, <crosenth@covad.com>

wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

Pavel Roskin <proski@gnu.org>

Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

Gyepi Sam <gyepi@praxis-sw.com>

Remote logging feature for syslogd

Linus Torvalds <torvalds@transmeta.com>

mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

Mark Whitley <markw@codepoet.org>

grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous), style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.

Charles P. Wright <cpwright@villagenet.com>

gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

Enrique Zanardi <ezanardi@ull.es>

tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

Tito Ragusa <farmatito@tiscali.it>

devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.

version 1.2.0 2012-07-17 BUSYBOX(1)