entry(n) Tk Built-In Commands entry(n)

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NAME entry - Create and manipulate entry widgets

SYNOPSIS entry pathName ?options?

STANDARD OPTIONS -background -highlightthickness -selectbackground -borderwidth -insertbackground -selectborderwidth -cursor -insertborderwidth -selectforeground -exportselection -insertofftime -takefocus -font -insertontime -textvariable -foreground -insertwidth -xscrollcommand -highlightbackground -justify -highlightcolor -relief

See the options manual entry for details on the standard options.

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS Command-Line Name:-disabledbackground Database Name: disabledBackground Database Class: DisabledBackground

Specifies the background color to use when the entry is dis- abled. If this option is the empty string, the normal back- ground color is used.

Command-Line Name:-disabledforeground Database Name: disabledForeground Database Class: DisabledForeground

Specifies the foreground color to use when the entry is dis- abled. If this option is the empty string, the normal fore- ground color is used.

Command-Line Name:-invalidcommand or -invcmd Database Name: invalidCommand Database Class: InvalidCommand

Specifies a script to eval when validateCommand returns 0. Set- ting it to {} disables this feature (the default). The best use of this option is to set it to bell. See Validation below for more information.

Command-Line Name:-readonlybackground Database Name: readonlyBackground Database Class: ReadonlyBackground

Specifies the background color to use when the entry is read- only. If this option is the empty string, the normal background color is used.

Command-Line Name:-show Database Name: show Database Class: Show

If this option is specified, then the true contents of the entry are not displayed in the window. Instead, each character in the entry s value will be displayed as the first character in the value of this option, such as *. This is useful, for example, if the entry is to be used to enter a password. If characters in the entry are selected and copied elsewhere, the information copied will be what is displayed, not the true contents of the entry.

Command-Line Name:-state Database Name: state Database Class: State

Specifies one of three states for the entry: normal, disabled, or readonly. If the entry is readonly, then the value may not be changed using widget commands and no insertion cursor will be displayed, even if the input focus is in the widget; the con- tents of the widget may still be selected. If the entry is dis- abled, the value may not be changed, no insertion cursor will be displayed, the contents will not be selectable, and the entry may be displayed in a different color, depending on the values of the -disabledforeground and -disabledbackground options.

Command-Line Name:-validate Database Name: validate Database Class: Validate

Specifies the mode in which validation should operate: none, focus, focusin, focusout, key, or all. It defaults to none. When you want validation, you must explicitly state which mode you wish to use. See Validation below for more.

Command-Line Name:-validatecommand or -vcmd Database Name: validateCommand Database Class: ValidateCommand

Specifies a script to eval when you want to validate the input into the entry widget. Setting it to {} disables this feature (the default). This command must return a valid Tcl boolean value. If it returns 0 (or the valid Tcl boolean equivalent) then it means you reject the new edition and it will not occur and the invalidCommand will be evaluated if it is set. If it returns 1, then the new edition occurs. See Validation below for more information.

Command-Line Name:-width Database Name: width Database Class: Width

Specifies an integer value indicating the desired width of the entry window, in average-size characters of the widgets font. If the value is less than or equal to zero, the widget picks a size just large enough to hold its current text. _________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION The entry command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument) and makes it into an entry widget. Additional options, described above, may be specified on the command line or in the option database to configure aspects of the entry such as its colors, font, and relief. The entry command returns its pathName argument. At the time this com- mand is invoked, there must not exist a window named pathName, but pathNames parent must exist.

An entry is a widget that displays a one-line text string and allows that string to be edited using widget commands described below, which are typically bound to keystrokes and mouse actions. When first cre- ated, an entrys string is empty. A portion of the entry may be selected as described below. If an entry is exporting its selection (see the exportSelection option), then it will observe the standard X11 protocols for handling the selection; entry selections are available as type STRING. Entries also observe the standard Tk rules for dealing with the input focus. When an entry has the input focus it displays an insertion cursor to indicate where new characters will be inserted.

Entries are capable of displaying strings that are too long to fit entirely within the widgets window. In this case, only a portion of the string will be displayed; commands described below may be used to change the view in the window. Entries use the standard xScrollCommand mechanism for interacting with scrollbars (see the description of the xScrollCommand option for details). They also support scanning, as described below.

VALIDATION Validation works by setting the validateCommand option to a script which will be evaluated according to the validate option as follows:

none Default. This means no validation will occur.

focus validateCommand will be called when the entry receives or loses focus.

focusin validateCommand will be called when the entry receives focus.

focusout validateCommand will be called when the entry loses focus.

key validateCommand will be called when the entry is edited.

all validateCommand will be called for all above conditions.

It is possible to perform percent substitutions on the validateCommand and invalidCommand, just as you would in a bind script. The following substitutions are recognized:

%d Type of action: 1 for insert, 0 for delete, or -1 for focus, forced or textvariable validation.

%i Index of char string to be inserted/deleted, if any, otherwise -1.

%P The value of the entry if the edit is allowed. If you are config- uring the entry widget to have a new textvariable, this will be the value of that textvariable.

%s The current value of entry prior to editing.

%S The text string being inserted/deleted, if any, {} otherwise.

%v The type of validation currently set.

%V The type of validation that triggered the callback (key, focusin, focusout, forced).

%W The name of the entry widget.

In general, the textVariable and validateCommand can be dangerous to mix. Any problems have been overcome so that using the validateCommand will not interfere with the traditional behavior of the entry widget. Using the textVariable for read-only purposes will never cause prob- lems. The danger comes when you try set the textVariable to something that the validateCommand would not accept, which causes validate to become none (the invalidCommand will not be triggered). The same hap- pens when an error occurs evaluating the validateCommand.

Primarily, an error will occur when the validateCommand or invalidCommand encounters an error in its script while evaluating or validateCommand does not return a valid Tcl boolean value. The vali- date option will also set itself to none when you edit the entry widget from within either the validateCommand or the invalidCommand. Such editions will override the one that was being validated. If you wish to edit the entry widget (for example set it to {}) during validation and still have the validate option set, you should include the command after idle {%W config -validate %v} in the validateCommand or invalidCommand (whichever one you were edit- ing the entry widget from). It is also recommended to not set an asso- ciated textVariable during validation, as that can cause the entry wid- get to become out of sync with the textVariable.

WIDGET COMMAND The entry command creates a new Tcl command whose name is pathName. This command may be used to invoke various operations on the widget. It has the following general form: pathName subcommand ?arg arg ...? Subcommand and the args determine the exact behavior of the command.

INDICES Many of the widget commands for entries take one or more indices as arguments. An index specifies a particular character in the entrys string, in any of the following ways:

number Specifies the character as a numerical index, where 0 cor- responds to the first character in the string.

anchor Indicates the anchor point for the selection, which is set with the select from and select adjust widget commands.

end Indicates the character just after the last one in the entry s string. This is equivalent to specifying a numeri- cal index equal to the length of the entrys string.

insert Indicates the character adjacent to and immediately follow- ing the insertion cursor.

sel.first Indicates the first character in the selection. It is an error to use this form if the selection is not in the entry window.

sel.last Indicates the character just after the last one in the selection. It is an error to use this form if the selec- tion is not in the entry window.

@number In this form, number is treated as an x-coordinate in the entrys window; the character spanning that x-coordinate is used. For example, @0 indicates the left-most charac- ter in the window.

Abbreviations may be used for any of the forms above, e.g. e or sel.f. In general, out-of-range indices are automatically rounded to the nearest legal value.

SUBCOMMANDS The following commands are possible for entry widgets:

pathName bbox index Returns a list of four numbers describing the bounding box of the character given by index. The first two elements of the list give the x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner of the screen area covered by the character (in pixels relative to the widget) and the last two elements give the width and height of the character, in pixels. The bounding box may refer to a region outside the visible area of the window.

pathName cget option Returns the current value of the configuration option given by option. Option may have any of the values accepted by the entry command.

pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...? Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If no option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail- able options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on the format of this list). If option is specified with no value, then the command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no option is specified). If one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the command returns an empty string. Option may have any of the values accepted by the entry command.

pathName delete first ?last? Delete one or more elements of the entry. First is the index of the first character to delete, and last is the index of the character just after the last one to delete. If last is not specified it defaults to first+1, i.e. a single character is deleted. This command returns an empty string.

pathName get Returns the entrys string.

pathName icursor index Arrange for the insertion cursor to be displayed just before the character given by index. Returns an empty string.

pathName index index Returns the numerical index corresponding to index.

pathName insert index string Insert the characters of string just before the character indi- cated by index. Returns an empty string.

pathName scan option args This command is used to implement scanning on entries. It has two forms, depending on option:

pathName scan mark x Records x and the current view in the entry window; used in conjunction with later scan dragto commands. Typi- cally this command is associated with a mouse button press in the widget. It returns an empty string.

pathName scan dragto x This command computes the difference between its x argu- ment and the x argument to the last scan mark command for the widget. It then adjusts the view left or right by 10 times the difference in x-coordinates. This command is typically associated with mouse motion events in the wid- get, to produce the effect of dragging the entry at high speed through the window. The return value is an empty string.

pathName selection option arg This command is used to adjust the selection within an entry. It has several forms, depending on option:

pathName selection adjust index Locate the end of the selection nearest to the character given by index, and adjust that end of the selection to be at index (i.e. including but not going beyond index). The other end of the selection is made the anchor point for future select to commands. If the selection is not currently in the entry, then a new selection is created to include the characters between index and the most recent selection anchor point, inclusive. Returns an empty string.

pathName selection clear Clear the selection if it is currently in this widget. If the selection is not in this widget then the command has no effect. Returns an empty string.

pathName selection from index Set the selection anchor point to just before the charac- ter given by index. Does not change the selection. Returns an empty string.

pathName selection present Returns 1 if there is are characters selected in the entry, 0 if nothing is selected.

pathName selection range start end Sets the selection to include the characters starting with the one indexed by start and ending with the one just before end. If end refers to the same character as start or an earlier one, then the entrys selection is cleared.

pathName selection to index If index is before the anchor point, set the selection to the characters from index up to but not including the anchor point. If index is the same as the anchor point, do nothing. If index is after the anchor point, set the selection to the characters from the anchor point up to but not including index. The anchor point is determined by the most recent select from or select adjust command in this widget. If the selection is not in this widget then a new selection is created using the most recent anchor point specified for the widget. Returns an empty string.

pathName validate This command is used to force an evaluation of the validateCom- mand independent of the conditions specified by the validate option. This is done by temporarily setting the validate option to all. It returns 0 or 1.

pathName xview args This command is used to query and change the horizontal position of the text in the widgets window. It can take any of the fol- lowing forms:

pathName xview Returns a list containing two elements. Each element is a real fraction between 0 and 1; together they describe the horizontal span that is visible in the window. For example, if the first element is .2 and the second ele- ment is .6, 20% of the entry s text is off-screen to the left, the middle 40% is visible in the window, and 40% of the text is off-screen to the right. These are the same values passed to scrollbars via the -xscrollcommand option.

pathName xview index Adjusts the view in the window so that the character given by index is displayed at the left edge of the window.

pathName xview moveto fraction Adjusts the view in the window so that the character fraction of the way through the text appears at the left edge of the window. Fraction must be a fraction between 0 and 1.

pathName xview scroll number what This command shifts the view in the window left or right according to number and what. Number must be an integer. What must be either units or pages or an abbreviation of one of these. If what is units, the view adjusts left or right by number average-width characters on the display; if it is pages then the view adjusts by number screen- fuls. If number is negative then characters farther to the left become visible; if it is positive then charac- ters farther to the right become visible.

DEFAULT BINDINGS Tk automatically creates class bindings for entries that give them the following default behavior. In the descriptions below, word refers to a contiguous group of letters, digits, or _ characters, or any single character other than these.

[1] Clicking mouse button 1 positions the insertion cursor just before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input focus to this widget, and clears any selection in the widget. Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between the insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.

[2] Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word under the mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the word. Dragging after a double click will stroke out a selection con- sisting of whole words.

[3] Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects all of the text in the entry and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the line.

[4] The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 1 while the Shift key is down; this will adjust the end of the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when but- ton 1 was pressed. If the button is double-clicked before drag- ging then the selection will be adjusted in units of whole words.

[5] Clicking mouse button 1 with the Control key down will position the insertion cursor in the entry without affecting the selec- tion.

[6] If any normal printing characters are typed in an entry, they are inserted at the point of the insertion cursor.

[7] The view in the entry can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 2. If mouse button 2 is clicked without moving the mouse, the selection is copied into the entry at the position of the mouse cursor.

[8] If the mouse is dragged out of the entry on the left or right sides while button 1 is pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to make more text visible (if there is more text off- screen on the side where the mouse left the window).

[9] The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character to the left or right; they also clear any selection in the entry and set the selection anchor. If Left or Right is typed with the Shift key down, then the insertion cursor moves and the selection is extended to include the new character. Control- Left and Control-Right move the insertion cursor by words, and Control-Shift-Left and Control-Shift-Right move the insertion cursor by words and also extend the selection. Control-b and Control-f behave the same as Left and Right, respectively. Meta-b and Meta-f behave the same as Control-Left and Control- Right, respectively.

[10] The Home key, or Control-a, will move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the entry and clear any selection in the entry. Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the entry and also extends the selection to that point.

[11] The End key, or Control-e, will move the insertion cursor to the end of the entry and clear any selection in the entry. Shift- End moves the cursor to the end and extends the selection to that point.

[12] The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the position of the insertion cursor. They do not affect the cur- rent selection. Shift-Select and Control-Shift-Space adjust the selection to the current position of the insertion cursor, selecting from the anchor to the insertion cursor if there was not any selection previously.

[13] Control-/ selects all the text in the entry.

[14] Control- clears any selection in the entry.

[15] The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is a selection.

[16] The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard and deletes the selection. If there is no selection in the widget then these keys have no effect.

[17] The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun workstations) or Con- trol-y inserts the contents of the clipboard at the position of the insertion cursor.

[18] The Delete key deletes the selection, if there is one in the entry. If there is no selection, it deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.

[19] The BackSpace key and Control-h delete the selection, if there is one in the entry. If there is no selection, it deletes the character to the left of the insertion cursor.

[20] Control-d deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.

[21] Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.

[22] Control-k deletes all the characters to the right of the inser- tion cursor.

[23] Control-t reverses the order of the two characters to the right of the insertion cursor.

If the entry is disabled using the -state option, then the entrys view can still be adjusted and text in the entry can still be selected, but no insertion cursor will be displayed and no text modifications will take place except if the entry is linked to a variable using the -textvariable option, in which case any changes to the variable are reflected by the entry whatever the value of its -state option.

The behavior of entries can be changed by defining new bindings for individual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.

SEE ALSO ttk::entry(n)

KEYWORDS entry, widget

Tk 8.3 entry(n)