CONNECT(3P) POSIX Programmer s Manual CONNECT(3P)

PROLOG This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer s Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME connect - connect a socket

SYNOPSIS #include <sys/socket.h>

int connect(int socket, const struct sockaddr *address, socklen_t address_len);

DESCRIPTION The connect() function shall attempt to make a connection on a socket. The function takes the following arguments:

socket Specifies the file descriptor associated with the socket.

address Points to a sockaddr structure containing the peer address. The length and format of the address depend on the address family of the socket.

address_len Specifies the length of the sockaddr structure pointed to by the address argument.

If the socket has not already been bound to a local address, connect() shall bind it to an address which, unless the sockets address family is AF_UNIX, is an unused local address.

If the initiating socket is not connection-mode, then connect() shall set the sockets peer address, and no connection is made. For SOCK_DGRAM sockets, the peer address identifies where all datagrams are sent on subsequent send() functions, and limits the remote sender for subsequent recv() functions. If address is a null address for the pro- tocol, the sockets peer address shall be reset.

If the initiating socket is connection-mode, then connect() shall attempt to establish a connection to the address specified by the address argument. If the connection cannot be established immediately and O_NONBLOCK is not set for the file descriptor for the socket, con- nect() shall block for up to an unspecified timeout interval until the connection is established. If the timeout interval expires before the connection is established, connect() shall fail and the connection attempt shall be aborted. If connect() is interrupted by a signal that is caught while blocked waiting to establish a connection, connect() shall fail and set errno to [EINTR], but the connection request shall not be aborted, and the connection shall be established asynchronously.

If the connection cannot be established immediately and O_NONBLOCK is set for the file descriptor for the socket, connect() shall fail and set errno to [EINPROGRESS], but the connection request shall not be aborted, and the connection shall be established asynchronously. Subse- quent calls to connect() for the same socket, before the connection is established, shall fail and set errno to [EALREADY].

When the connection has been established asynchronously, select() and poll() shall indicate that the file descriptor for the socket is ready for writing.

The socket in use may require the process to have appropriate privi- leges to use the connect() function.

RETURN VALUE Upon successful completion, connect() shall return 0; otherwise, -1 shall be returned and errno set to indicate the error.

ERRORS The connect() function shall fail if:

EADDRNOTAVAIL The specified address is not available from the local machine.

EAFNOSUPPORT The specified address is not a valid address for the address family of the specified socket.

EALREADY A connection request is already in progress for the specified socket.

EBADF The socket argument is not a valid file descriptor.

ECONNREFUSED The target address was not listening for connections or refused the connection request.

EINPROGRESS O_NONBLOCK is set for the file descriptor for the socket and the connection cannot be immediately established; the connection shall be established asynchronously.

EINTR The attempt to establish a connection was interrupted by deliv- ery of a signal that was caught; the connection shall be estab- lished asynchronously.

EISCONN The specified socket is connection-mode and is already con- nected.

ENETUNREACH No route to the network is present.

ENOTSOCK The socket argument does not refer to a socket.

EPROTOTYPE The specified address has a different type than the socket bound to the specified peer address.

ETIMEDOUT The attempt to connect timed out before a connection was made.

If the address family of the socket is AF_UNIX, then connect() shall fail if:

EIO An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ELOOP A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during resolution of the pathname in address.

ENAMETOOLONG A component of a pathname exceeded {NAME_MAX} characters, or an entire pathname exceeded {PATH_MAX} characters.

ENOENT A component of the pathname does not name an existing file or the pathname is an empty string.

ENOTDIR A component of the path prefix of the pathname in address is not a directory.

The connect() function may fail if:

EACCES Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix; or write access to the named socket is denied.

EADDRINUSE Attempt to establish a connection that uses addresses that are already in use.

ECONNRESET Remote host reset the connection request.

EHOSTUNREACH The destination host cannot be reached (probably because the host is down or a remote router cannot reach it).

EINVAL The address_len argument is not a valid length for the address family; or invalid address family in the sockaddr structure.

ELOOP More than {SYMLOOP_MAX} symbolic links were encountered during resolution of the pathname in address.

ENAMETOOLONG Pathname resolution of a symbolic link produced an intermediate result whose length exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

ENETDOWN The local network interface used to reach the destination is down.

ENOBUFS No buffer space is available.

EOPNOTSUPP The socket is listening and cannot be connected.

The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES None.

APPLICATION USAGE If connect() fails, the state of the socket is unspecified. Conforming applications should close the file descriptor and create a new socket before attempting to reconnect.

RATIONALE None.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS None.

SEE ALSO accept(), bind(), close(), getsockname(), poll(), select(), send(), shutdown(), socket(), the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <sys/socket.h>

COPYRIGHT Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group 2003 CONNECT(3P)