NAME emacs - GNU project Emacs
SYNOPSIS emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]
DESCRIPTION GNU Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is in the GNU Emacs Manual, which you can read using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone program. Please look there for complete and up-to-date documentation. This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do so; the Emacs maintainers priority goal is to minimize the amount of time this man page takes away from other more useful projects. The user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.
Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers. CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility. Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a com- mand given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-h c) describes a given characters effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function specified by name.
Emacss Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.
GNU Emacss many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send- ing (Mail), outline editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), automated psychotherapy (Doctor), and much more.
There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other Emacses should have little trouble adapting even without a copy. Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and using the self-documentation features.
Emacs Options The following options are of general interest:
file Edit file.
--file file, --find-file file, --visit file The same as specifying file directly as an argument.
+number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign and the number). This applies only to the next file specified.
+line:column Go to the specified line and column.
-q, --no-init-file Do not load an init file.
--no-site-file Do not load the site-wide startup file.
--no-desktop Do not load a saved desktop.
-nl, --no-shared-memory Do not use shared memory.
-Q, --quick Equivalent to "-q --no-site-file --no-splash".
--no-splash Do not display a splash screen during start-up.
--debug-init Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing of the user init file ~/.emacs. This is useful for debugging problems in the init file.
-u user, --user user Load users init file.
-t file, --terminal file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This must be the first argument specified in the command line.
--multibyte, --no-unibyte Enable multibyte mode (enabled by default).
--unibyte, --no-multibyte Enable unibyte mode.
--version Display Emacs version information and exit.
--help Display this help and exit.
The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encountered):
-f function, --funcall function Execute the lisp function function.
-l file, --load file Load the lisp code in the file file.
--eval expr, --execute expr Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.
The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:
--batch Edit in batch mode. The editor will send messages to stderr. This option must be the first in the argument list. You must use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions to call.
--script file Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.
--insert file Insert contents of file into the current buffer.
--kill Exit Emacs while in batch mode.
-L dir, --directory dir Add dir to the list of directories Emacs searches for Lisp files.
Using Emacs with X Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system. If you run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis- play in. You will probably want to start the editor as a background process so that you can continue using your original window.
Emacs can be started with the following X switches:
--name name Specify the name which should be assigned to the initial Emacs window. This controls looking up X resources as well as the window title.
-T name, --title name Specify the title for the initial X window.
-r, -rv, --reverse-video Display the Emacs window in reverse video.
-fn font, --font font Set the Emacs window s font to that specified by font. You will find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory. Note that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts. Under the X11 Release 4 font- naming conventions, any font with the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width font. Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the form widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed. See xlsfonts(1) for more information.
When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and the font name.
--xrm resources Set additional X resources.
--color, --color=mode Override color mode for character terminals; mode defaults to auto, and can also be never, auto, always, or a mode name like ansi8.
-bw pixels, --border-width pixels Set the Emacs windows border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.
-ib pixels, --internal-border pixels Set the windows internal border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.
-g geometry, --geometry geometry Set the Emacs windows width, height, and position as specified. The geometry specification is in the stan- dard X format; see X(7) for more information. The width and height are specified in characters; the default is 80 by 24. See the Emacs manual, section "Options for Window Size and Position", for information on how window sizes interact with selecting or deselecting the tool bar and menu bar.
-lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels Additional space to put between lines.
-vb, --vertical-scroll-bars Enable vertical scrollbars.
-fh, --fullheight Make the first frame as high as the screen.
-fs, --fullscreen Make the first frame fullscreen.
-fw, --fullwidth Make the first frame as wide as the screen.
-fg color, --foreground-color color On color displays, set the color of the text.
Use the command M-x list-colors-display for a list of valid color names.
-bg color, --background-color color On color displays, set the color of the windows back- ground.
-bd color, --border-color color On color displays, set the color of the windows border.
-cr color, --cursor-color color On color displays, set the color of the windows text cursor.
-ms color, --mouse-color color On color displays, set the color of the windows mouse cursor.
-d displayname, --display displayname Create the Emacs window on the display specified by dis- playname. Must be the first option specified in the command line.
-nbi, --no-bitmap-icon Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.
--iconic Start Emacs in iconified state.
-nbc, --no-blinking-cursor Disable blinking cursor.
-nw, --no-window-system Tell Emacs not to use its special interface to X. If you use this switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, display is done in that window.
-D, --basic-display This option disables many display features; use it for debugging Emacs.
You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources file (see xrdb(1)). Use the following format:
where value specifies the default value of keyword. Emacs lets you set default values for the following keywords:
background (class Background) For color displays, sets the window s background color.
bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon) If bitmapIcons value is set to on, the window will iconify into the "kitchen sink."
borderColor (class BorderColor) For color displays, sets the color of the windows bor- der.
borderWidth (class BorderWidth) Sets the windows border width in pixels.
cursorColor (class Foreground) For color displays, sets the color of the windows text cursor.
cursorBlink (class CursorBlink) Specifies whether to make the cursor blink. The default is on. Use off or false to turn cursor blinking off.
font (class Font) Sets the windows text font.
foreground (class Foreground) For color displays, sets the windows text color.
fullscreen (class Fullscreen) The desired fullscreen size. The value can be one of fullboth, fullwidth, or fullheight, which correspond to the command-line options -fs , -fw , and -fh, respectively. Note that this applies to the initial frame only.
geometry (class Geometry) Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).
iconName (class Title) Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.
internalBorder (class BorderWidth) Sets the windows internal border width in pixels.
lineSpacing (class LineSpacing) Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.
menuBar (class MenuBar) Gives frames menu bars if on; don t have menu bars if off. See the Emacs manual, sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources", for how to control the appear- ance of the menu bar if you have one.
minibuffer (class Minibuffer) If none, don t make a minibuffer in this frame. It will use a separate minibuffer frame instead.
paneFont (class Font) Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.
pointerColor (class Foreground) For color displays, sets the color of the windows mouse cursor.
privateColormap (class PrivateColormap) If on, use a private color map, in the case where the "default visual" of class PseudoColor and Emacs is using it.
reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo) If reverseVideos value is set to on, the window will be displayed in reverse video.
screenGamma (class ScreenGamma) Gamma correction for colors, equivalent to the frame parameter screen-gamma.
scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth) The scroll bar width in pixels, equivalent to the frame parameter scroll-bar-width.
selectionFont (class SelectionFont) Font name for pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs. (For toolkit versions, see the Emacs manual, sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources".)
selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout) Number of milliseconds to wait for a selection reply. A value of 0 means wait as long as necessary.
synchronous (class Synchronous) Run Emacs in synchronous mode if on. Synchronous mode is useful for debugging X problems.
title (class Title) Sets the title of the Emacs window.
toolBar (class ToolBar) Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.
useXIM (class UseXIM) Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.
verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars) Gives frames scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars if off.
visualClass (class VisualClass) Specify the "visual" that X should use. This tells X how to handle colors. The value should start with one of TrueColor, PseudoColor, DirectColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, and StaticGray, followed by -depth, where depth is the number of color planes.
If you try to set color values while using a black and white display, the windows characteristics will default as follows: the foreground color will be set to black, the background color will be set to white, the border color will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be set to black.
Using the Mouse The following lists some of the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window under X11.
MOUSE BUTTON FUNCTION ------------------------------------------------------------ left Set point. middle Paste text. right Cut text into X cut buffer. SHIFT-middle Cut text into X cut buffer. SHIFT-right Paste text. CTRL-middle Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it. CTRL-right Select this window, then split it into two windows. Same as typing CTRL-x 2. CTRL-SHIFT-left X buffer menu hold the buttons and keys down, wait for menu to appear, select buffer, and release. Move mouse out of menu and release to cancel.
CTRL-SHIFT-middle X help menu pop up index card menu for Emacs help. CTRL-SHIFT-right Select window with mouse, and delete all other windows. Same as typing CTRL-x 1.
MANUALS You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software. See the file ORDERS for ordering information. Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available. As with all software and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the Emacs manual. The TeX source to the man- ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.
FILES /usr/local/share/info files for the Info documentation browser. The complete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient tree structured form. Also includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language.
/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp Lisp source files and compiled files that define most editing commands. Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when used.
/usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH various programs that are used with GNU Emacs.
/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc various files of information.
/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* contains the documentation strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs. They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.
/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering vari- ous services to assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou- bleshooting, porting and customization.
BUGS There is a mailing list, email@example.com, for reporting Emacs bugs and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate feature. We ask you to read the section Reporting Emacs Bugs near the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and when to report bugs. Also, include the version number of the Emacs you are running in every bug report that you send in. Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.
Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report. The purpose of reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release, if possible. For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see above) for a list of people who offer it.
Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list. For more information about Emacs mailing lists, see the file /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.
UNRESTRICTIONS Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference manual.
Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license covering those systems. Such inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is permitted. In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restric- tions to redistribution of Emacs.
Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library. Eventually GNU (Gnus Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Unix. Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.
SEE ALSO emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)
AUTHORS Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation. Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.
COPYING Copyright (C) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per- mission notice identical to this one.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this docu- ment into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a trans- lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.
GNU Emacs 23.1 2007 April 13 EMACS(1)