RPM(8) Red Hat Linux RPM(8)

NAME rpm - RPM Package Manager

SYNOPSIS QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES: rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {-K|--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES: rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

MISCELLANEOUS: rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb}

rpm {--addsign|--resign} PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {--querytags|--showrc}

rpm {--setperms|--setugids} PACKAGE_NAME ...

select-options [PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,--all] [-f,--file FILE] [-g,--group GROUP] {-p,--package PACKAGE_FILE] [--fileid MD5] [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID] [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME] [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]

query-options [--changelog] [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump] [--filesbypkg] [-i,--info] [--last] [-l,--list] [--provides] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT] [-R,--requires] [--scripts] [-s,--state] [--triggers,--triggerscripts]

verify-options [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nolinkto] [--nomd5] [--nosize] [--nouser] [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]

install-options [--aid] [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH] [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash] [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos] [--includedocs] [--justdb] [--nodeps] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nosuggest] [--noorder] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH] [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH] [--repackage] [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs] [--test]

DESCRIPTION rpm is a powerful Package Manager, which can be used to build, install, query, verify, update, and erase individual software packages. A pack- age consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to install and erase the archive files. The meta-data includes helper scripts, file attributes, and descriptive information about the package. Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used to encapsulate software to be installed, and source packages, containing the source code and recipe necessary to produce binary packages.

One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify, Sig- nature Check, Install/Upgrade/Freshen, Uninstall, Initialize Database, Rebuild Database, Resign, Add Signature, Set Owners/Groups, Show Query- tags, and Show Configuration.

GENERAL OPTIONS These options can be used in all the different modes.

-?, --help Print a longer usage message then normal.

--version Print a single line containing the version number of rpm being used.

--quiet Print as little as possible - normally only error messages will be displayed.

-v Print verbose information - normally routine progress messages will be displayed.

-vv Print lots of ugly debugging information.

--rcfile FILELIST Each of the files in the colon separated FILELIST is read sequentially by rpm for configuration information. Only the first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be expanded to the value of $HOME. The default FILELIST is /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/red- hat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

--pipe CMD Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

--dbpath DIRECTORY Use the database in DIRECTORY rather than the default path /var/lib/rpm

--root DIRECTORY Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all operations. Note that this means the database within DIRECTORY will be used for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g. %post if installing, or %prep if building, a package) will be run after a chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

-D, --defineMACRO EXPR Defines MACRO with value EXPR.

-E, --evalEXPR Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm install command is

rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This installs a new package.

The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to a newer version. This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of the package are removed after the new package is installed.

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This will upgrade packages, but only if an earlier version currently exists. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http URL, in which case the package will be downloaded before being installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support.

--aid Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.

--allfiles Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package, regardless if they exist.

--badreloc Used with --relocate, permit relocations on all file paths, not just those OLDPATHs included in the binary package relocation hint(s).

--excludepath OLDPATH Dont install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

--excludedocs Don t install any files which are marked as documentation (which includes man pages and texinfo documents).

--force Same as using --replacepkgs, --replacefiles, and --oldpackage.

-h, --hash Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked. Use with -v|--verbose for a nicer display.

--ignoresize Dont check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before installing this package.

--ignorearch Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures of the binary package and host dont match.

--ignoreos Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating systems of the binary package and host dont match.

--includedocs Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

--justdb Update only the database, not the filesystem.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nosignature Don t verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nodeps Dont do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a package.

--nosuggest Don t suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.

--noorder Dont reorder the packages for an install. The list of packages would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.

--noscripts

--nopre

--nopost

--nopreun

--nopostun Dont execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option is equivalent to

--nopre --nopost --nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %pre, %post, %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

--notriggers

--notriggerin

--notriggerun

--notriggerpostun Dont execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerin --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerin, %trig- gerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--oldpackage Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

--percent Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package archive. This is intended to make rpm easy to run from other tools.

--prefix NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with the installation prefix in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH.

--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with OLDPATH in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH. This option can be used repeatedly if several OLDPATHs in the package are to be relocated.

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--replacefiles Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages.

--replacepkgs Install the packages even if some of them are already installed on this system.

--test Do not install the package, simply check for and report poten- tial conflicts.

ERASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm erase command is

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

The following options may also be used:

--allmatches Remove all versions of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME. Normally an error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME matches multiple packages.

--nodeps Dont check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.

--noscripts

--nopreun

--nopostun Don t execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option during package erase is equivalent to

--nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

--notriggers

--notriggerun

--notriggerpostun Don t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--test Dont really uninstall anything, just go through the motions. Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

QUERY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm query command is

rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

You may specify the format that package information should be printed in. To do this, you use the

--qf|--queryformat QUERYFMT

option, followed by the QUERYFMT format string. Query formats are mod- ified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format is made up of static strings (which may include standard C character escapes for newlines, tabs, and other special characters) and printf(3) type formatters. As rpm already knows the type to print, the type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by the name of the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names are case insensitive, and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name may be omitted as well.

Alternate output formats may be requested by following the tag with :typetag. Currently, the following types are supported:

:armor Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

:base64 Encode binary data using base64.

:date Use strftime(3) "%c" format.

:day Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.

:depflags Format dependency flags.

:fflags Format file flags.

:hex Format in hexadecimal.

:octal Format in octal.

:perms Format file permissions.

:shescape Escape single quotes for use in a script.

:triggertype Display trigger suffix.

For example, to print only the names of the packages queried, you could use %{NAME} as the format string. To print the packages name and dis- tribution information in two columns, you could use %-30{NAME}%{DISTRI- BUTION}. rpm will print a list of all of the tags it knows about when it is invoked with the --querytags argument.

There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection, and information selection.

PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS: PACKAGE_NAME Query installed package named PACKAGE_NAME.

-a, --all Query all installed packages.

-f, --file FILE Query package owning FILE.

--fileid MD5 Query package that contains a given file identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the file contents.

-g, --group GROUP Query packages with the group of GROUP.

--hdrid SHA1 Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

-p, --package PACKAGE_FILE Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case the package header will be downloaded and queried. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary package, will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest. Comments are permitted, starting with a #, and each line of a package mani- fest file may include white space separated glob expressions, including URLs with remote glob expressions, that will be expanded to paths that are substituted in place of the package manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE arguments to the query.

--pkgid MD5 Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

--querybynumber HDRNUM Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful only for debugging.

--specfile SPECFILE Parse and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not all the information (e.g. file lists) is available, this type of query permits rpm to be used to extract information from spec files without having to write a specfile parser.

--tid TID Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction identifier. A unix time stamp is currently used as a transaction identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within a single transaction have a common identifier.

--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

--whatprovides CAPABILITY Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

--whatrequires CAPABILITY Query all packages that requires CAPABILITY for proper function- ing.

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS: --changelog Display change information for the package.

-c, --configfiles List only configuration files (implies -l).

-d, --docfiles List only documentation files (implies -l).

--dump Dump file information as follows (implies -l):

path size mtime md5sum mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

--filesbypkg List all the files in each selected package.

-i, --info Display package information, including name, version, and description. This uses the --queryformat if one was specified.

--last Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest packages are at the top.

-l, --list List files in package.

--provides List capabilities this package provides.

-R, --requires List packages on which this package depends.

--scripts List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part of the installation and uninstallation processes.

-s, --state Display the states of files in the package (implies -l). The state of each file is one of normal, not installed, or replaced.

--triggers, --triggerscripts Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in the package.

VERIFY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm verify command is

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in the package with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the rpm database. Among other things, verifying compares the size, MD5 sum, permissions, type, owner and group of each file. Any discrepancies are displayed. Files that were not installed from the package, for example, documentation files excluded on instal- lation using the "--excludedocs" option, will be silently ignored.

The package selection options are the same as for package querying (including package manifest files as arguments). Other options unique to verify mode are:

--nodeps Dont verify dependencies of packages.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nofiles Dont verify any attributes of package files.

--noscripts Don t execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

--nosignature Dont verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nolinkto

--nomd5

--nosize

--nouser

--nogroup

--nomtime

--nomode

--nordev Dont verify the corresponding file attribute.

The format of the output is a string of 8 characters, a possible attribute marker:

c %config configuration file. d %doc documentation file. g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload). l %license license file. r %readme readme file.

from the package header, followed by the file name. Each of the 8 characters denotes the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the database. A single "." (period) means the test passed, while a single "?" (question mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file permissions prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically emBoldened) character denotes failure of the corresponding --verify test:

S file Size differs M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type) 5 MD5 sum differs D Device major/minor number mismatch L readLink(2) path mismatch U User ownership differs G Group ownership differs T mTime differs

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

The --checksig option checks all the digests and signatures contained in PACKAGE_FILE to ensure the integrity and origin of the package. Note that signatures are now verified whenever a package is read, and --checksig is useful to verify all of the digests and signatures asso- ciated with a package.

Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key. An ASCII armored public key can be added to the rpm database using --import. An imported public key is carried in a header, and key ring management is performed exactly like package management. For example, all currently imported public keys can be displayed by:

rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

Details about a specific public key, when imported, can be displayed by querying. Heres information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like packages. Heres how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

SIGNING A PACKAGE rpm --addsign|--resign PACKAGE_FILE ...

Both of the --addsign and --resign options generate and insert new sig- natures for each package PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any existing signatures. There are two options for historical reasons, there is no difference in behavior currently.

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm must be configured to run GPG and be able to find a key ring with the appropriate keys. By default, rpm uses the same conventions as GPG to find key rings, namely the $GNUPGHOME environment variable. If your key rings are not located where GPG expects them to be, you will need to configure the macro %_gpg_path to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and rpm, only V3 OpenPGP signature packets should be configured. Either DSA or RSA ver- ification algorithms can be used, but DSA is preferred.

If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you also need to create your own public and secret key pair (see the GPG man- ual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros

%_signature The signature type. Right now only gpg and pgp are supported.

%_gpg_name The name of the "user" whose key you wish to use to sign your packages.

For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user "John Doe <jdoe@foo.com>" from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg using the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include

%_signature gpg %_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg %_gpg_name John Doe <jdoe@foo.com> %_gpgbin /usr/bin/gpg

in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros for per-system con- figuration and ~/.rpmmacros for per-user configuration.

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is

rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb} [-v] [--dbpath DIRECTORY] [--root DIRECTORY]

Use --initdb to create a new database if one doesnt already exist (existing database is not overwritten), use --rebuilddb to rebuild the database indices from the installed package headers.

SHOWRC The command

rpm --showrc

shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are currently set in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so that packages can be queried or installed from the internet. Package files for install, upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http style URL:

ftp://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/path/to/package.rpm

If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be prompted for (once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and password are omit- ted, anonymous ftp is used. In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp transfers are performed.

rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

--ftpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all ftp trans- fers, which allows users to ftp through firewall machines which use proxy systems. This option may also be specified by config- uring the macro %_ftpproxy.

--ftpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the ftp connection on the proxy ftp server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_ftpport.

rpm allows the following options to be used with http URLs:

--httpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all http trans- fers. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpproxy.

--httpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the proxy http server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES Executing rpmbuild The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild exe- cutable. Although legacy compatibility provided by the popt aliases below has been adequate, the compatibility is not perfect; hence build mode compatibility through popt aliases is being removed from rpm. Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-build) and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build modes previously documented here in rpm(8).

Add the following lines to /etc/popt if you wish to continue invoking rpmbuild from the rpm command line:

rpm exec --bp rpmb -bp rpm exec --bc rpmb -bc rpm exec --bi rpmb -bi rpm exec --bl rpmb -bl rpm exec --ba rpmb -ba rpm exec --bb rpmb -bb rpm exec --bs rpmb -bs rpm exec --tp rpmb -tp rpm exec --tc rpmb -tc rpm exec --ti rpmb -ti rpm exec --tl rpmb -tl rpm exec --ta rpmb -ta rpm exec --tb rpmb -tb rpm exec --ts rpmb -ts rpm exec --rebuild rpmb --rebuild rpm exec --recompile rpmb --recompile rpm exec --clean rpmb --clean rpm exec --rmsource rpmb --rmsource rpm exec --rmspec rpmb --rmspec rpm exec --target rpmb --target rpm exec --short-circuit rpmb --short-circuit

FILES rpmrc Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc /etc/rpmrc ~/.rpmrc

Macro Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/macros /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros /etc/rpm/macros ~/.rpmmacros

Database /var/lib/rpm/Basenames /var/lib/rpm/Conflictname /var/lib/rpm/Dirnames /var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s /var/lib/rpm/Group /var/lib/rpm/Installtid /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Providename /var/lib/rpm/Provideversion /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Removed /var/lib/rpm/Requirename /var/lib/rpm/Requireversion /var/lib/rpm/Sha1header /var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5 /var/lib/rpm/Triggername

Temporary /var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO popt(3), rpm2cpio(8), rpmbuild(8),

rpm --help - as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases its impossible to guarantee that whats described in the manual matches whats available.

http://www.rpm.org/ <URL:http://www.rpm.org/>

AUTHORS Marc Ewing <marc@redhat.com> Jeff Johnson <jbj@redhat.com> Erik Troan <ewt@redhat.com>

Red Hat, Inc. 09 June 2002 RPM(8) gcalctool(1) gcalctool(1)

NAME gcalctool - a desktop calculator

SYNOPSIS gcalctool [ -D ] [ -E ] [ -a accuracy ] [ -v ] [ -? ]

DESCRIPTION gcalctool is a desktop calculator. It has been designed to be used with either the mouse or the keyboard. It is visually similar to a lot of hand-held calculators. There are basic, financial and scientific modes. Some of the calculator keys have menu marks. This indicates that there is a menu associated with that key. Each key is discussed in more detail below.

One of the most important things to remember about gcalctool is that calculations are performed from left to right, with no arithmetic precedence. If you need arithmetic precedence, then you should use parentheses (see below).

Internal arithmetic is now done with multi-precision floating point numbers. Accuracy can be adjusted from zero to nine numeric places in fixed notation, but numbers can be displayed in engineering and scien- tific notation as well. There is also an option to show or remove trailing zeroes after the numeric point. The calculator reverts to scientific notation when the number is larger than the display would allow in fixed notation. In the scientific mode, the base of operation can be changed between binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal. Numbers are initially displayed in fixed notation to nine numeric places, with trailing zeroes removed, in the decimal base.

You can use the Copy and Paste functions in conjunction with the numeric display to store or retrieve characters from the clipboard. You can also remove the last digit entered, completely clear the displayed entry and totally reset the calculator.

There are ten memory registers. Numbers can be stored or retrieved in these locations, and arithmetic can be performed upon register con- tents.

On startup, gcalctool will use several configuration resources stored in a gconf database. These are listed in detail in the resources sec- tion of these manual pages. Any constants or function definitions that the user defines are also stored in this database.

Context sensitive help is also available. Control-F1 toggles whether tooltip help is displayed for the item which currently has focus.

OPTIONS -D Turning on gcalctool debugging.

-E Turning on debugging in the multiple precision arithmetic pack- age.

-a accuracy Initial number of digits displayed after the numeric point. This value must be in the range 0 to 9. The default is nine numeric places.

-v Show the version number and the usage message of this release of the gcalctool program.

-? Show the version number and the usage message of this release of the gcalctool program. Note that the ? character must be escaped if using csh(1).

RESOURCES On startup, gcalctool uses the following string type resources stored in a gconf database:

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/accuracy Values: Accuracy value Description The number of of digits displayed after the numeric point. This value must be in the range 0 to 9.

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/base Values: Numeric Base Description The initial numeric base. Valid values are "BIN" (binary), "OCT" (octal), "DEC" (decimal) and "HEX" (hex- adecimal).

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/display Values: Display mode Description The initial display mode. Valid values are "ENG" (engi- neering), "FIX" (fixed-point) and "SCI" (scientific).

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/mode Values: Mode Description The initial calculator mode. Valid values are "BASIC", "FINANCIAL" and "SCIENTIFIC".

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showzeroes Values: true, false (true) Description Whether trailing zeroes, after the numeric point, are shown in the display value.

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showthousands Values: true, false (false) Description Whether fixed numbers in the decimal base are displayed with thousands separated.

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showregisters Values: true, false (true) Description Whether the memory register window is initially dis- played.

Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/trigtype Values: Trig. type Description The initial trigonometric type. Valid values are "DEG" (degrees), "GRAD" (grads) and "RAD" (radians).

MENU BAR This section describes the menu items available in the applications menubar.

Calculator Menu Quit [ Control-Q ] Exit without user verification. Edit Menu Copy [ Control-C ] Copy the calculators numeric display to the clip- board. Paste [ Control-V ] Paste the contents of the clipboard into the calcula- tors numeric display. Insert ASCII Value [ Control-I ] A separate window is displayed which allows you to enter any character. The ASCII value of this charac- ter is then displayed in the current base. View Menu Basic Mode [ Control-B ] Display the calculator in basic mode. Financial Mode [ Control-F ] Display the calculator in financial mode. Scientific Mode [ Control-S ] Display the calculator in scientific mode. Memory Registers [ Control-M ] Display the memory registers window. Help Menu Contents... [ F1 ] Display the online help for the calculator in a sepa- rate window. About Gcalctool [ Control-A ] Display information about this application, including the version number and the author. CALCULATOR BUTTONS This section describes the calculator keys present in the main gcalctool window. gcalctool has three modes; basic, financial and sci- entific. The keys associated with each of these modes are described in separate sections below.

Keyboard equivalents appear in the square brackets. Note that Alt fol- lowed by a letter indicates that the Alt key and this key should be pressed together.

BASIC MODE Numerical Keys [ 0-9 . = <Return> ]. Enter a digit (decimal digits 0-9) into the display. The . character acts as the numeric point, and = (or Return) is used to complete numerical entry.

Upto forty digits may be entered.

Arithmetical Operations [ + - x * / ]. Perform an arithmetical operation using the previous entry and the next entry as operands. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are denoted by the characters +, -, * and / respectively (x is also synonymous with multiplication).

Number Manipulation Operators. Int [ i ] Return the integer portion of the current entry. Frac [ : ] Return the fractional portion of the current entry. Abs [ u ] Return the absolute value of the current entry. +/- [ c ] Change the arithmetic sign of the current entry. 1/x [ r ] Return the value of 1 divided by the current entry. x^2 [ @ ] Return the square of the current entry. % [ % ] Perform a percentage calculation using the last entry and the next entry. Sqrt [ s ] Perform a square root operation on the current entry.

Menu Operations. Each of these operations has a popup menu associated with it. It is also possible to use just the keyboard to achieve the same results. The first keyboard value selects the menu operation; the second key- board character selects the new value for this operation. Unlike the menu facility available with the mouse, there is no visual feedback on what choices are available to you, so the user has to know what item they wish to select. Acc [ a ] Set the display accuracy. Between 0 and 9 [ 0-9 ] significant digits can be displayed. Rcl [ R ] Retrieve memory register value. There are ten memory registers [ 0-9 ]. Sto [ S ] Store value in memory register. There are ten memory registers [ 0-9 ]. The register number may be pre- ceded by an arithmetic operation (addition, subtrac- tion, multiplication or division), in which case the specified operation is carried out between the dis- played entry and the value currently in the selected memory register, and the result is placed in the mem- ory register. Exch [ X ] Exchange the current display with the contents of a memory register. There are ten memory registers [ 0-9 ]. Other Operations. Clr [ Delete ] Clear the display, and reset the calculator. CE [ Control-Back Space or Escape ] Clear the display. Bksp [ Back Space ] Remove the rightmost character of the current entry, and recalculate the displayed value.

FINANCIAL MODE An example of how to use each of these financial calculations, is available via the tooltip help facility. Ctrm [ m ] Compounding term. Computes the number of compounding periods it will take an investment of present value pv to grow to a future value of fv, earning a fixed interest rate int per compounding period. Memory register usage: Register 0 int (periodic interest rate). Register 1 fv (future value). Register 2 pv (present value).

Ddb [ d ] Double-declining depreciation. Computes the deprecia- tion allowance on an asset for a specified period of time, using the double-declining balance method. Memory register usage: Register 0 cost (amount paid for asset). Register 1 salvage (value of asset at end of life). Register 2 life (useful life of the asset). Register 3 period (time period for deprecia- tion allowance).

Fv [ v ] Future value. This calculation determines the future value of an investment. It computes the future value based on a series of equal payments, each of amount pmt, earning periodic interest rate int, over the number of payment periods in term. Memory register usage: Register 0 pmt (periodic payment). Register 1 int (periodic interest rate). Register 2 n (number of periods).

Pmt [ P ] Periodic payment. Computes the amount of the periodic payment of a loan. Most installment loans are com- puted like ordinary annuities, in that payments are made at the end of each payment period. Memory register usage: Register 0 prin (principal). Register 1 int (periodic interest rate). Register 2 n (term).

Pv [ p ] Present value. Determines the present value of an investment. It computes the present value based on a series of equal payments, each of amount pmt, dis- counted at periodic interest rate int, over the num- ber of periods in term. Memory register usage: Register 0 pmt (periodic payment). Register 1 int (periodic interest rate). Register 2 n (term).

Rate [ T ] Periodic interest rate. Returns the periodic interest necessary for a present value of pv to grow to a future value of fv over the number of compounding periods in term. Memory register usage: Register 0 fv (future value). Register 1 pv (present value). Register 2 n (term).

Sln [ l ] Straight-line depreciation. Computes the straight- line depreciation of an asset for one period. The straight-line method of depreciation divides the depreciable cost (cost - salvage) evenly over the useful life of an asset. The useful life is the num- ber of periods (typically years) over which an asset is depreciated. Memory register usage: Register 0 cost (cost of the asset). Register 1 salvage (salvage value of the asset). Register 2 life (useful life of the asset).

Syd [ Y ] Sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation. The sum-of-the- years -digits method of depreciation accelerates the rate of depreciation, so that more depreciation expense occurs in earlier periods than in later ones. The depreciable cost is the actual cost minus salvage value. The useful life is the number of periods (typ- ically years) over which an asset is depreciated. Memory register usage: Register 0 cost (cost of the asset). Register 1 salvage (salvage value of the asset). Register 2 life (useful life of the asset). Register 3 period (period for which depreciation is computed).

Term [ t ] Payment period. Returns the number of payment periods in the term of an ordinary annuity necessary to accu- mulate a future value of fv, earning a periodic interest rate of int. Each payment is equal to amount pmt. Memory register usage: Register 0 pmt (periodic payment). Register 1 fv (future value). Register 2 int (periodic interest rate).

SCIENTIFIC MODE This section describes the functionality available in the calculators scientific mode. This also includes a special mode panel used for set- ting various options.

Mode Panel. Numeric Base Set the numeric base of operation. Choices are binary, octal, decimal (the default) and hexadecimal.

Display Type Set the display mode. Valid values are "Eng" (engi- neering), "Fix" (fixed-point) and "Sci" (scientific).

Trigonometric Type Set the trigonometric type. Valid values are Degrees, Gradians and Radians.

Hyp Toggle the hyperbolic function indicator. This switch affects the type of sine, cosine and tangent trigono- metric functions performed.

Inv Toggle the inverse function indicator. This switch affects the type of sine, cosine and tangent trigono- metric functions performed.

Menu Operations. Con [ # ] Retrieve and display a constant value. There are ten constant values [ 0-9 ], and each one has a default value which can be overridden when the user creates their own constant definitions. The ten default val- ues are:

0 0.621 kilometers per hour or miles per hour 1 1.414213562 square root of 2 2 2.718281828 e 3 3.141592653 pi 4 0.3937007 centimeters or inches 5 57.295779513 degrees in a radian 6 1048576.0 2 to the power of 20 7 0.0353 grams or ounces 8 0.948 kilojoules or British thermals 9 0.0610 cubic centimeters or cubic inches Fun [ f ] Retrieve and execute a function expression. There can be upto ten functions expression defined by the user [0 - 9]. There are no default function values.

Scientific buttons. < [ < ] Shift the current entry to the left. The shift can be between 1 and 15 places [ 1-9, A-F ]. This calculator key has a popup menu associated with it. > [ > ] Shift the current entry to the right. The shift can be between 1 and 15 places [ 1-9, A-F ]. This calcu- lator key has a popup menu associated with it. &16 [ ] ] Truncate the current entry to a 16 bit unsigned inte- ger. &32 [ [ ] Truncate the current entry to a 32 bit unsigned inte- ger. ( and ) [ ( and ) ] Parentheses. Allow precedence with arithmetic calcu- lations. Note that parentheses can be nested to any level, and gcalctool provides a visual feedback of what is being typed in, in the calculator display. The calculation doesn t take place until the last parenthesis is matched, then the display is updated with the new result. Exp [ e ] This is used to allow numbers to be entered in scien- tific notation. The mantissa should be initially entered, then the Exp key selected. The exponent is then entered. If no numerical input had occurred when the Exp key was selected, then a mantissa of 1.0 is assumed. e^x [ { ] Returns e raised to the power of the current entry. 10^x [ } ] Returns 10 raised to the power of the current entry. y^x [ y ] Take the last entry and raise it to the power of the next entry. x! [ ! ] Return the factorial of the current entry. Note that the factorial function is only valid for positive integers. Rand [ ? ] Return a random number between 0.0 and 1.0. Hexadecimal Keys [ A-F ] The hexadecimal numerical digits A-F. These buttons will be insensitive unless the calculator is cur- rently in the hexadecimal mode. Cos [ J ] Return the trigonometric cosine, arc cosine, hyper- bolic cosine or inverse hyperbolic cosine of the cur- rent display, depending upon the current settings of the hyperbolic and inverse function switches. The result is displayed in the current trigonometric units (degrees, radians or grads). Sin [ K ] Return the trigonometric sine, arc sine, hyperbolic sine or inverse hyperbolic sine of the current dis- play, depending upon the current settings of the hyperbolic and inverse function switches. The result is displayed in the current trigonometric units (degrees, radians or grads). Tan [ L ] Return the trigonometric tangent, arc tangent, hyper- bolic tangent or inverse hyperbolic tangent of the current display, depending upon the current settings of the hyperbolic and inverse function switches. The result is displayed in the current trigonometric units (degrees, radians or grads). Ln [ N ] Return the natural logarithm of the current entry. Log [ G ] Return the base 10 logarithm of the current entry. Or [ | ] Perform a logical OR operation on the current entry and the next entry, And [ & ] Perform a logical AND operation on the current entry and the next entry, treating both numbers as unsigned long integers. Not [ ~ ] Perform a logical NOT operation on the current entry. Xor [ ^ ] Perform a logical XOR operation on the current entry and the next entry, treating both numbers as unsigned long integers. Xnor [ n ] Perform a logical XNOR operation on the current entry and the next entry, treating both numbers as unsigned long integers.

FILES ~/.gcalctoolrc users personal gcalctool resources for customizing the appearance and color of gcalctool

7 February 2005 gcalctool(1)