RPM(8) Red Hat Linux RPM(8)

NAME rpm - RPM Package Manager

SYNOPSIS QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES: rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {-K|--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES: rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

MISCELLANEOUS: rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb}

rpm {--addsign|--resign} PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {--querytags|--showrc}

rpm {--setperms|--setugids} PACKAGE_NAME ...

select-options [PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,--all] [-f,--file FILE] [-g,--group GROUP] {-p,--package PACKAGE_FILE] [--fileid MD5] [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID] [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME] [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]

query-options [--changelog] [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump] [--filesbypkg] [-i,--info] [--last] [-l,--list] [--provides] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT] [-R,--requires] [--scripts] [-s,--state] [--triggers,--triggerscripts]

verify-options [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nolinkto] [--nomd5] [--nosize] [--nouser] [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]

install-options [--aid] [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH] [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash] [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos] [--includedocs] [--justdb] [--nodeps] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nosuggest] [--noorder] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH] [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH] [--repackage] [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs] [--test]

DESCRIPTION rpm is a powerful Package Manager, which can be used to build, install, query, verify, update, and erase individual software packages. A pack- age consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to install and erase the archive files. The meta-data includes helper scripts, file attributes, and descriptive information about the package. Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used to encapsulate software to be installed, and source packages, containing the source code and recipe necessary to produce binary packages.

One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify, Sig- nature Check, Install/Upgrade/Freshen, Uninstall, Initialize Database, Rebuild Database, Resign, Add Signature, Set Owners/Groups, Show Query- tags, and Show Configuration.

GENERAL OPTIONS These options can be used in all the different modes.

-?, --help Print a longer usage message then normal.

--version Print a single line containing the version number of rpm being used.

--quiet Print as little as possible - normally only error messages will be displayed.

-v Print verbose information - normally routine progress messages will be displayed.

-vv Print lots of ugly debugging information.

--rcfile FILELIST Each of the files in the colon separated FILELIST is read sequentially by rpm for configuration information. Only the first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be expanded to the value of $HOME. The default FILELIST is /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/red- hat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

--pipe CMD Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

--dbpath DIRECTORY Use the database in DIRECTORY rather than the default path /var/lib/rpm

--root DIRECTORY Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all operations. Note that this means the database within DIRECTORY will be used for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g. %post if installing, or %prep if building, a package) will be run after a chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

-D, --defineMACRO EXPR Defines MACRO with value EXPR.

-E, --evalEXPR Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm install command is

rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This installs a new package.

The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to a newer version. This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of the package are removed after the new package is installed.

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This will upgrade packages, but only if an earlier version currently exists. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http URL, in which case the package will be downloaded before being installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support.

--aid Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.

--allfiles Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package, regardless if they exist.

--badreloc Used with --relocate, permit relocations on all file paths, not just those OLDPATHs included in the binary package relocation hint(s).

--excludepath OLDPATH Dont install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

--excludedocs Don t install any files which are marked as documentation (which includes man pages and texinfo documents).

--force Same as using --replacepkgs, --replacefiles, and --oldpackage.

-h, --hash Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked. Use with -v|--verbose for a nicer display.

--ignoresize Dont check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before installing this package.

--ignorearch Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures of the binary package and host dont match.

--ignoreos Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating systems of the binary package and host dont match.

--includedocs Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

--justdb Update only the database, not the filesystem.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nosignature Don t verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nodeps Dont do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a package.

--nosuggest Don t suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.

--noorder Dont reorder the packages for an install. The list of packages would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.

--noscripts

--nopre

--nopost

--nopreun

--nopostun Dont execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option is equivalent to

--nopre --nopost --nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %pre, %post, %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

--notriggers

--notriggerin

--notriggerun

--notriggerpostun Dont execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerin --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerin, %trig- gerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--oldpackage Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

--percent Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package archive. This is intended to make rpm easy to run from other tools.

--prefix NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with the installation prefix in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH.

--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with OLDPATH in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH. This option can be used repeatedly if several OLDPATHs in the package are to be relocated.

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--replacefiles Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages.

--replacepkgs Install the packages even if some of them are already installed on this system.

--test Do not install the package, simply check for and report poten- tial conflicts.

ERASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm erase command is

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

The following options may also be used:

--allmatches Remove all versions of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME. Normally an error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME matches multiple packages.

--nodeps Dont check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.

--noscripts

--nopreun

--nopostun Don t execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option during package erase is equivalent to

--nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

--notriggers

--notriggerun

--notriggerpostun Don t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--test Dont really uninstall anything, just go through the motions. Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

QUERY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm query command is

rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

You may specify the format that package information should be printed in. To do this, you use the

--qf|--queryformat QUERYFMT

option, followed by the QUERYFMT format string. Query formats are mod- ified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format is made up of static strings (which may include standard C character escapes for newlines, tabs, and other special characters) and printf(3) type formatters. As rpm already knows the type to print, the type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by the name of the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names are case insensitive, and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name may be omitted as well.

Alternate output formats may be requested by following the tag with :typetag. Currently, the following types are supported:

:armor Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

:base64 Encode binary data using base64.

:date Use strftime(3) "%c" format.

:day Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.

:depflags Format dependency flags.

:fflags Format file flags.

:hex Format in hexadecimal.

:octal Format in octal.

:perms Format file permissions.

:shescape Escape single quotes for use in a script.

:triggertype Display trigger suffix.

For example, to print only the names of the packages queried, you could use %{NAME} as the format string. To print the packages name and dis- tribution information in two columns, you could use %-30{NAME}%{DISTRI- BUTION}. rpm will print a list of all of the tags it knows about when it is invoked with the --querytags argument.

There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection, and information selection.

PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS: PACKAGE_NAME Query installed package named PACKAGE_NAME.

-a, --all Query all installed packages.

-f, --file FILE Query package owning FILE.

--fileid MD5 Query package that contains a given file identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the file contents.

-g, --group GROUP Query packages with the group of GROUP.

--hdrid SHA1 Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

-p, --package PACKAGE_FILE Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case the package header will be downloaded and queried. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary package, will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest. Comments are permitted, starting with a #, and each line of a package mani- fest file may include white space separated glob expressions, including URLs with remote glob expressions, that will be expanded to paths that are substituted in place of the package manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE arguments to the query.

--pkgid MD5 Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

--querybynumber HDRNUM Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful only for debugging.

--specfile SPECFILE Parse and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not all the information (e.g. file lists) is available, this type of query permits rpm to be used to extract information from spec files without having to write a specfile parser.

--tid TID Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction identifier. A unix time stamp is currently used as a transaction identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within a single transaction have a common identifier.

--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

--whatprovides CAPABILITY Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

--whatrequires CAPABILITY Query all packages that requires CAPABILITY for proper function- ing.

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS: --changelog Display change information for the package.

-c, --configfiles List only configuration files (implies -l).

-d, --docfiles List only documentation files (implies -l).

--dump Dump file information as follows (implies -l):

path size mtime md5sum mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

--filesbypkg List all the files in each selected package.

-i, --info Display package information, including name, version, and description. This uses the --queryformat if one was specified.

--last Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest packages are at the top.

-l, --list List files in package.

--provides List capabilities this package provides.

-R, --requires List packages on which this package depends.

--scripts List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part of the installation and uninstallation processes.

-s, --state Display the states of files in the package (implies -l). The state of each file is one of normal, not installed, or replaced.

--triggers, --triggerscripts Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in the package.

VERIFY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm verify command is

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in the package with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the rpm database. Among other things, verifying compares the size, MD5 sum, permissions, type, owner and group of each file. Any discrepancies are displayed. Files that were not installed from the package, for example, documentation files excluded on instal- lation using the "--excludedocs" option, will be silently ignored.

The package selection options are the same as for package querying (including package manifest files as arguments). Other options unique to verify mode are:

--nodeps Dont verify dependencies of packages.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nofiles Dont verify any attributes of package files.

--noscripts Don t execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

--nosignature Dont verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nolinkto

--nomd5

--nosize

--nouser

--nogroup

--nomtime

--nomode

--nordev Dont verify the corresponding file attribute.

The format of the output is a string of 8 characters, a possible attribute marker:

c %config configuration file. d %doc documentation file. g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload). l %license license file. r %readme readme file.

from the package header, followed by the file name. Each of the 8 characters denotes the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the database. A single "." (period) means the test passed, while a single "?" (question mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file permissions prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically emBoldened) character denotes failure of the corresponding --verify test:

S file Size differs M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type) 5 MD5 sum differs D Device major/minor number mismatch L readLink(2) path mismatch U User ownership differs G Group ownership differs T mTime differs

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

The --checksig option checks all the digests and signatures contained in PACKAGE_FILE to ensure the integrity and origin of the package. Note that signatures are now verified whenever a package is read, and --checksig is useful to verify all of the digests and signatures asso- ciated with a package.

Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key. An ASCII armored public key can be added to the rpm database using --import. An imported public key is carried in a header, and key ring management is performed exactly like package management. For example, all currently imported public keys can be displayed by:

rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

Details about a specific public key, when imported, can be displayed by querying. Heres information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like packages. Heres how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

SIGNING A PACKAGE rpm --addsign|--resign PACKAGE_FILE ...

Both of the --addsign and --resign options generate and insert new sig- natures for each package PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any existing signatures. There are two options for historical reasons, there is no difference in behavior currently.

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm must be configured to run GPG and be able to find a key ring with the appropriate keys. By default, rpm uses the same conventions as GPG to find key rings, namely the $GNUPGHOME environment variable. If your key rings are not located where GPG expects them to be, you will need to configure the macro %_gpg_path to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and rpm, only V3 OpenPGP signature packets should be configured. Either DSA or RSA ver- ification algorithms can be used, but DSA is preferred.

If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you also need to create your own public and secret key pair (see the GPG man- ual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros

%_signature The signature type. Right now only gpg and pgp are supported.

%_gpg_name The name of the "user" whose key you wish to use to sign your packages.

For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user "John Doe <jdoe@foo.com>" from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg using the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include

%_signature gpg %_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg %_gpg_name John Doe <jdoe@foo.com> %_gpgbin /usr/bin/gpg

in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros for per-system con- figuration and ~/.rpmmacros for per-user configuration.

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is

rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb} [-v] [--dbpath DIRECTORY] [--root DIRECTORY]

Use --initdb to create a new database if one doesnt already exist (existing database is not overwritten), use --rebuilddb to rebuild the database indices from the installed package headers.

SHOWRC The command

rpm --showrc

shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are currently set in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so that packages can be queried or installed from the internet. Package files for install, upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http style URL:

ftp://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/path/to/package.rpm

If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be prompted for (once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and password are omit- ted, anonymous ftp is used. In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp transfers are performed.

rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

--ftpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all ftp trans- fers, which allows users to ftp through firewall machines which use proxy systems. This option may also be specified by config- uring the macro %_ftpproxy.

--ftpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the ftp connection on the proxy ftp server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_ftpport.

rpm allows the following options to be used with http URLs:

--httpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all http trans- fers. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpproxy.

--httpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the proxy http server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES Executing rpmbuild The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild exe- cutable. Although legacy compatibility provided by the popt aliases below has been adequate, the compatibility is not perfect; hence build mode compatibility through popt aliases is being removed from rpm. Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-build) and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build modes previously documented here in rpm(8).

Add the following lines to /etc/popt if you wish to continue invoking rpmbuild from the rpm command line:

rpm exec --bp rpmb -bp rpm exec --bc rpmb -bc rpm exec --bi rpmb -bi rpm exec --bl rpmb -bl rpm exec --ba rpmb -ba rpm exec --bb rpmb -bb rpm exec --bs rpmb -bs rpm exec --tp rpmb -tp rpm exec --tc rpmb -tc rpm exec --ti rpmb -ti rpm exec --tl rpmb -tl rpm exec --ta rpmb -ta rpm exec --tb rpmb -tb rpm exec --ts rpmb -ts rpm exec --rebuild rpmb --rebuild rpm exec --recompile rpmb --recompile rpm exec --clean rpmb --clean rpm exec --rmsource rpmb --rmsource rpm exec --rmspec rpmb --rmspec rpm exec --target rpmb --target rpm exec --short-circuit rpmb --short-circuit

FILES rpmrc Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc /etc/rpmrc ~/.rpmrc

Macro Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/macros /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros /etc/rpm/macros ~/.rpmmacros

Database /var/lib/rpm/Basenames /var/lib/rpm/Conflictname /var/lib/rpm/Dirnames /var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s /var/lib/rpm/Group /var/lib/rpm/Installtid /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Providename /var/lib/rpm/Provideversion /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Removed /var/lib/rpm/Requirename /var/lib/rpm/Requireversion /var/lib/rpm/Sha1header /var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5 /var/lib/rpm/Triggername

Temporary /var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO popt(3), rpm2cpio(8), rpmbuild(8),

rpm --help - as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases its impossible to guarantee that whats described in the manual matches whats available.

http://www.rpm.org/ <URL:http://www.rpm.org/>

AUTHORS Marc Ewing <marc@redhat.com> Jeff Johnson <jbj@redhat.com> Erik Troan <ewt@redhat.com>

Red Hat, Inc. 09 June 2002 RPM(8) EMACS(1) EMACS(1)

NAME emacs - GNU project Emacs

SYNOPSIS emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

DESCRIPTION GNU Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is in the GNU Emacs Manual, which you can read on line using Info, a subsystem of Emacs. Please look there for complete and up-to-date documentation. This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do so; the Emacs maintainers priority goal is to minimize the amount of time this man page takes away from other more useful projects. The user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers. CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility. Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL- h c) describes a given character s effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

Emacss Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

GNU Emacss many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send- ing (Mail), outline editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other Emacses should have little trouble adapting even without a copy. Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

Emacs Options

The following options are of general interest:

file Edit file.

+number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign and the number).

-q Do not load an init file.

-u user Load users init file.

-t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/std- out. This must be the first argument specified in the command line.

The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encountered):

-f function Execute the lisp function function.

-l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

-batch Edit in batch mode. The editor will send messages to stderr. This option must be the first in the argument list. You must use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions to call.

-kill Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

Using Emacs with X

Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system. If you run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis- play in. You will probably want to start the editor as a background process so that you can continue using your original window.

Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

-name name Specifies the name which should be assigned to the initial Emacs window. This controls looking up X resources as well as the window title.

-title name Specifies the title for the initial X window.

-r Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

-i Use the "kitchen sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs window.

-font font, -fn font Set the Emacs windows font to that specified by font. You will find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts direc- tory. Note that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts. Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width font. Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the form widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed. See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and the font name.

-bw pixels Set the Emacs windows border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

-ib pixels Set the window s internal border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.

-geometry geometry Set the Emacs windows width, height, and position as speci- fied. The geometry specification is in the standard X format; see X(1) for more information. The width and height are speci- fied in characters; the default is 80 by 24.

-fg color On color displays, sets the color of the text.

See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a list of valid color names.

-bg color On color displays, sets the color of the window s background.

-bd color On color displays, sets the color of the windows border.

-cr color On color displays, sets the color of the window s text cursor.

-ms color On color displays, sets the color of the windows mouse cursor.

-d displayname, -display displayname Create the Emacs window on the display specified by display- name. Must be the first option specified in the command line.

-nw Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X. If you use this switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, dis- play is done in that window. This must be the first option specified in the command line.

You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources file (see xrdb(1)). Use the following format:

emacs.keyword:value

where value specifies the default value of keyword. Emacs lets you set default values for the following keywords:

font (class Font) Sets the windows text font.

reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo) If reverseVideos value is set to on, the window will be dis- played in reverse video.

bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon) If bitmapIcons value is set to on, the window will iconify into the "kitchen sink."

borderWidth (class BorderWidth) Sets the windows border width in pixels.

internalBorder (class BorderWidth) Sets the windows internal border width in pixels.

foreground (class Foreground) For color displays, sets the windows text color.

background (class Background) For color displays, sets the window s background color.

borderColor (class BorderColor) For color displays, sets the color of the windows border.

cursorColor (class Foreground) For color displays, sets the color of the window s text cursor.

pointerColor (class Foreground) For color displays, sets the color of the windows mouse cur- sor.

geometry (class Geometry) Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

title (class Title) Sets the title of the Emacs window.

iconName (class Title) Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

If you try to set color values while using a black and white display, the windows characteristics will default as follows: the foreground color will be set to black, the background color will be set to white, the border color will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be set to black.

Using the Mouse

The following lists the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window under X11.

MOUSE BUTTON FUNCTION left Set point. middle Paste text. right Cut text into X cut buffer. SHIFT-middle Cut text into X cut buffer. SHIFT-right Paste text. CTRL-middle Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it. CTRL-right Select this window, then split it into two win- dows. Same as typing CTRL-x 2. CTRL-SHIFT-left X buffer menu--hold the buttons and keys down, wait for menu to appear, select buffer, and release. Move mouse out of menu and release to cancel. CTRL-SHIFT-middle X help menu--pop up index card menu for Emacs help. CTRL-SHIFT-right Select window with mouse, and delete all other windows. Same as typing CTRL-x 1.

MANUALS You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software. See the file ORDERS for ordering information. Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available. As with all software and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the Emacs manual. The TeX source to the man- ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

FILES /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem of Emacs) to refer to. Currently not much of Unix is documented here, but the complete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and object files

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp - Lisp source files and compiled files that define most editing commands. Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when used.

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc - various programs that are used with GNU Emacs, and some files of information.

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* - contains the documentation strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs. They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/OTHER.EMACSES discusses GNU Emacs vs. other versions of Emacs. /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering vari- ous services to assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou- bleshooting, porting and customization. These files also have information useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been fully documented.

/usr/local/com/emacs/lock - holds lock files that are made for all files being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of one file by two users.

/usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

BUGS There is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu on the internet (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs bugs and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate feature. We ask you to read the section Reporting Emacs Bugs near the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and when to report bugs. Also, include the version number of the Emacs you are running in every bug report that you send in.

Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report. The purpose of reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release, if possible. For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see above) for a list of people who offer it.

Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list. Send requests to be added to mailing lists to the special list info-gnu- emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu (or the corresponding UUCP address). For more information about Emacs mailing lists, see the file /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS. Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs running in Raw mode on some Unix versions.

UNRESTRICTIONS Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference manual.

Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license covering those systems. Such inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is permitted. In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restric- tions to redistribution of Emacs.

Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library. Eventually GNU (Gnus Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix. Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

SEE ALSO X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation. Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

COPYING Copyright (c) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document sepa- rately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license. A copy of the license is included in the gfdl(1) man page, and in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License" in the Emacs manual.

4th Berkeley Distribution 1995 December 7 EMACS(1)