RPM(8) Red Hat Linux RPM(8)

NAME rpm - RPM Package Manager

SYNOPSIS QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES: rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {-K|--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES: rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

MISCELLANEOUS: rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb}

rpm {--addsign|--resign} PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {--querytags|--showrc}

rpm {--setperms|--setugids} PACKAGE_NAME ...

select-options [PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,--all] [-f,--file FILE] [-g,--group GROUP] {-p,--package PACKAGE_FILE] [--fileid MD5] [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID] [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME] [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]

query-options [--changelog] [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump] [--filesbypkg] [-i,--info] [--last] [-l,--list] [--provides] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT] [-R,--requires] [--scripts] [-s,--state] [--triggers,--triggerscripts]

verify-options [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nolinkto] [--nomd5] [--nosize] [--nouser] [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]

install-options [--aid] [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH] [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash] [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos] [--includedocs] [--justdb] [--nodeps] [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nosuggest] [--noorder] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH] [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH] [--repackage] [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs] [--test]

DESCRIPTION rpm is a powerful Package Manager, which can be used to build, install, query, verify, update, and erase individual software packages. A pack- age consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to install and erase the archive files. The meta-data includes helper scripts, file attributes, and descriptive information about the package. Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used to encapsulate software to be installed, and source packages, containing the source code and recipe necessary to produce binary packages.

One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify, Sig- nature Check, Install/Upgrade/Freshen, Uninstall, Initialize Database, Rebuild Database, Resign, Add Signature, Set Owners/Groups, Show Query- tags, and Show Configuration.

GENERAL OPTIONS These options can be used in all the different modes.

-?, --help Print a longer usage message then normal.

--version Print a single line containing the version number of rpm being used.

--quiet Print as little as possible - normally only error messages will be displayed.

-v Print verbose information - normally routine progress messages will be displayed.

-vv Print lots of ugly debugging information.

--rcfile FILELIST Each of the files in the colon separated FILELIST is read sequentially by rpm for configuration information. Only the first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be expanded to the value of $HOME. The default FILELIST is /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/red- hat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

--pipe CMD Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

--dbpath DIRECTORY Use the database in DIRECTORY rather than the default path /var/lib/rpm

--root DIRECTORY Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all operations. Note that this means the database within DIRECTORY will be used for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g. %post if installing, or %prep if building, a package) will be run after a chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

-D, --defineMACRO EXPR Defines MACRO with value EXPR.

-E, --evalEXPR Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm install command is

rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This installs a new package.

The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to a newer version. This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of the package are removed after the new package is installed.

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

This will upgrade packages, but only if an earlier version currently exists. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http URL, in which case the package will be downloaded before being installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support.

--aid Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.

--allfiles Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package, regardless if they exist.

--badreloc Used with --relocate, permit relocations on all file paths, not just those OLDPATHs included in the binary package relocation hint(s).

--excludepath OLDPATH Dont install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

--excludedocs Don t install any files which are marked as documentation (which includes man pages and texinfo documents).

--force Same as using --replacepkgs, --replacefiles, and --oldpackage.

-h, --hash Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked. Use with -v|--verbose for a nicer display.

--ignoresize Dont check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before installing this package.

--ignorearch Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures of the binary package and host dont match.

--ignoreos Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating systems of the binary package and host dont match.

--includedocs Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

--justdb Update only the database, not the filesystem.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nosignature Don t verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nodeps Dont do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a package.

--nosuggest Don t suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.

--noorder Dont reorder the packages for an install. The list of packages would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.

--noscripts

--nopre

--nopost

--nopreun

--nopostun Dont execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option is equivalent to

--nopre --nopost --nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %pre, %post, %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

--notriggers

--notriggerin

--notriggerun

--notriggerpostun Dont execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerin --notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerin, %trig- gerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--oldpackage Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

--percent Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package archive. This is intended to make rpm easy to run from other tools.

--prefix NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with the installation prefix in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH.

--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that start with OLDPATH in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH. This option can be used repeatedly if several OLDPATHs in the package are to be relocated.

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--replacefiles Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages.

--replacepkgs Install the packages even if some of them are already installed on this system.

--test Do not install the package, simply check for and report poten- tial conflicts.

ERASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm erase command is

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

The following options may also be used:

--allmatches Remove all versions of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME. Normally an error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME matches multiple packages.

--nodeps Dont check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.

--noscripts

--nopreun

--nopostun Don t execute the scriptlet of the same name. The --noscripts option during package erase is equivalent to

--nopreun --nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

--notriggers

--notriggerun

--notriggerpostun Don t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The --notriggers option is equivalent to

--notriggerun --notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

--repackage Re-package the files before erasing. The previously installed package will be named according to the macro %_repack- age_name_fmt and will be created in the directory named by the macro %_repackage_dir (default value is /var/spool/repackage).

--test Dont really uninstall anything, just go through the motions. Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

QUERY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm query command is

rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

You may specify the format that package information should be printed in. To do this, you use the

--qf|--queryformat QUERYFMT

option, followed by the QUERYFMT format string. Query formats are mod- ified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format is made up of static strings (which may include standard C character escapes for newlines, tabs, and other special characters) and printf(3) type formatters. As rpm already knows the type to print, the type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by the name of the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names are case insensitive, and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name may be omitted as well.

Alternate output formats may be requested by following the tag with :typetag. Currently, the following types are supported:

:armor Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

:base64 Encode binary data using base64.

:date Use strftime(3) "%c" format.

:day Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.

:depflags Format dependency flags.

:fflags Format file flags.

:hex Format in hexadecimal.

:octal Format in octal.

:perms Format file permissions.

:shescape Escape single quotes for use in a script.

:triggertype Display trigger suffix.

For example, to print only the names of the packages queried, you could use %{NAME} as the format string. To print the packages name and dis- tribution information in two columns, you could use %-30{NAME}%{DISTRI- BUTION}. rpm will print a list of all of the tags it knows about when it is invoked with the --querytags argument.

There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection, and information selection.

PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS: PACKAGE_NAME Query installed package named PACKAGE_NAME.

-a, --all Query all installed packages.

-f, --file FILE Query package owning FILE.

--fileid MD5 Query package that contains a given file identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the file contents.

-g, --group GROUP Query packages with the group of GROUP.

--hdrid SHA1 Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

-p, --package PACKAGE_FILE Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE. The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case the package header will be downloaded and queried. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpms internal ftp and http client support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary package, will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest. Comments are permitted, starting with a #, and each line of a package mani- fest file may include white space separated glob expressions, including URLs with remote glob expressions, that will be expanded to paths that are substituted in place of the package manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE arguments to the query.

--pkgid MD5 Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e. the MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

--querybynumber HDRNUM Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful only for debugging.

--specfile SPECFILE Parse and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not all the information (e.g. file lists) is available, this type of query permits rpm to be used to extract information from spec files without having to write a specfile parser.

--tid TID Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction identifier. A unix time stamp is currently used as a transaction identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within a single transaction have a common identifier.

--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

--whatprovides CAPABILITY Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

--whatrequires CAPABILITY Query all packages that requires CAPABILITY for proper function- ing.

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS: --changelog Display change information for the package.

-c, --configfiles List only configuration files (implies -l).

-d, --docfiles List only documentation files (implies -l).

--dump Dump file information as follows (implies -l):

path size mtime md5sum mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

--filesbypkg List all the files in each selected package.

-i, --info Display package information, including name, version, and description. This uses the --queryformat if one was specified.

--last Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest packages are at the top.

-l, --list List files in package.

--provides List capabilities this package provides.

-R, --requires List packages on which this package depends.

--scripts List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part of the installation and uninstallation processes.

-s, --state Display the states of files in the package (implies -l). The state of each file is one of normal, not installed, or replaced.

--triggers, --triggerscripts Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in the package.

VERIFY OPTIONS The general form of an rpm verify command is

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in the package with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the rpm database. Among other things, verifying compares the size, MD5 sum, permissions, type, owner and group of each file. Any discrepancies are displayed. Files that were not installed from the package, for example, documentation files excluded on instal- lation using the "--excludedocs" option, will be silently ignored.

The package selection options are the same as for package querying (including package manifest files as arguments). Other options unique to verify mode are:

--nodeps Dont verify dependencies of packages.

--nodigest Dont verify package or header digests when reading.

--nofiles Dont verify any attributes of package files.

--noscripts Don t execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

--nosignature Dont verify package or header signatures when reading.

--nolinkto

--nomd5

--nosize

--nouser

--nogroup

--nomtime

--nomode

--nordev Dont verify the corresponding file attribute.

The format of the output is a string of 8 characters, a possible attribute marker:

c %config configuration file. d %doc documentation file. g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload). l %license license file. r %readme readme file.

from the package header, followed by the file name. Each of the 8 characters denotes the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the database. A single "." (period) means the test passed, while a single "?" (question mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file permissions prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically emBoldened) character denotes failure of the corresponding --verify test:

S file Size differs M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type) 5 MD5 sum differs D Device major/minor number mismatch L readLink(2) path mismatch U User ownership differs G Group ownership differs T mTime differs

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...

The --checksig option checks all the digests and signatures contained in PACKAGE_FILE to ensure the integrity and origin of the package. Note that signatures are now verified whenever a package is read, and --checksig is useful to verify all of the digests and signatures asso- ciated with a package.

Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key. An ASCII armored public key can be added to the rpm database using --import. An imported public key is carried in a header, and key ring management is performed exactly like package management. For example, all currently imported public keys can be displayed by:

rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

Details about a specific public key, when imported, can be displayed by querying. Heres information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like packages. Heres how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

SIGNING A PACKAGE rpm --addsign|--resign PACKAGE_FILE ...

Both of the --addsign and --resign options generate and insert new sig- natures for each package PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any existing signatures. There are two options for historical reasons, there is no difference in behavior currently.

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm must be configured to run GPG and be able to find a key ring with the appropriate keys. By default, rpm uses the same conventions as GPG to find key rings, namely the $GNUPGHOME environment variable. If your key rings are not located where GPG expects them to be, you will need to configure the macro %_gpg_path to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and rpm, only V3 OpenPGP signature packets should be configured. Either DSA or RSA ver- ification algorithms can be used, but DSA is preferred.

If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you also need to create your own public and secret key pair (see the GPG man- ual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros

%_signature The signature type. Right now only gpg and pgp are supported.

%_gpg_name The name of the "user" whose key you wish to use to sign your packages.

For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user "John Doe <jdoe@foo.com>" from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg using the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include

%_signature gpg %_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg %_gpg_name John Doe <jdoe@foo.com> %_gpgbin /usr/bin/gpg

in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros for per-system con- figuration and ~/.rpmmacros for per-user configuration.

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is

rpm {--initdb|--rebuilddb} [-v] [--dbpath DIRECTORY] [--root DIRECTORY]

Use --initdb to create a new database if one doesnt already exist (existing database is not overwritten), use --rebuilddb to rebuild the database indices from the installed package headers.

SHOWRC The command

rpm --showrc

shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are currently set in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so that packages can be queried or installed from the internet. Package files for install, upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http style URL:

ftp://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/path/to/package.rpm

If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be prompted for (once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and password are omit- ted, anonymous ftp is used. In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp transfers are performed.

rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

--ftpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all ftp trans- fers, which allows users to ftp through firewall machines which use proxy systems. This option may also be specified by config- uring the macro %_ftpproxy.

--ftpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the ftp connection on the proxy ftp server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_ftpport.

rpm allows the following options to be used with http URLs:

--httpproxy HOST The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all http trans- fers. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpproxy.

--httpport PORT The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the proxy http server instead of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES Executing rpmbuild The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild exe- cutable. Although legacy compatibility provided by the popt aliases below has been adequate, the compatibility is not perfect; hence build mode compatibility through popt aliases is being removed from rpm. Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-build) and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build modes previously documented here in rpm(8).

Add the following lines to /etc/popt if you wish to continue invoking rpmbuild from the rpm command line:

rpm exec --bp rpmb -bp rpm exec --bc rpmb -bc rpm exec --bi rpmb -bi rpm exec --bl rpmb -bl rpm exec --ba rpmb -ba rpm exec --bb rpmb -bb rpm exec --bs rpmb -bs rpm exec --tp rpmb -tp rpm exec --tc rpmb -tc rpm exec --ti rpmb -ti rpm exec --tl rpmb -tl rpm exec --ta rpmb -ta rpm exec --tb rpmb -tb rpm exec --ts rpmb -ts rpm exec --rebuild rpmb --rebuild rpm exec --recompile rpmb --recompile rpm exec --clean rpmb --clean rpm exec --rmsource rpmb --rmsource rpm exec --rmspec rpmb --rmspec rpm exec --target rpmb --target rpm exec --short-circuit rpmb --short-circuit

FILES rpmrc Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc /etc/rpmrc ~/.rpmrc

Macro Configuration /usr/lib/rpm/macros /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros /etc/rpm/macros ~/.rpmmacros

Database /var/lib/rpm/Basenames /var/lib/rpm/Conflictname /var/lib/rpm/Dirnames /var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s /var/lib/rpm/Group /var/lib/rpm/Installtid /var/lib/rpm/Name /var/lib/rpm/Packages /var/lib/rpm/Providename /var/lib/rpm/Provideversion /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /var/lib/rpm/Removed /var/lib/rpm/Requirename /var/lib/rpm/Requireversion /var/lib/rpm/Sha1header /var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5 /var/lib/rpm/Triggername

Temporary /var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO popt(3), rpm2cpio(8), rpmbuild(8),

rpm --help - as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases its impossible to guarantee that whats described in the manual matches whats available.

http://www.rpm.org/ <URL:http://www.rpm.org/>

AUTHORS Marc Ewing <marc@redhat.com> Jeff Johnson <jbj@redhat.com> Erik Troan <ewt@redhat.com>

Red Hat, Inc. 09 June 2002 RPM(8) CSCOPE(1) CSCOPE(1)

NAME cscope - interactively examine a C program

SYNOPSIS cscope [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVv] [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir] [-iname- file] [-[0-9]pattern] [-pn] [-sdir] [files]

DESCRIPTION cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to browse through C source files for specified elements of code.

By default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y) source files in the current directory. cscope may also be invoked for source files named on the command line. In either case, cscope searches the standard directories for #include files that it does not find in the current directory. cscope uses a symbol cross-reference, called cscope.out by default, to locate functions, function calls, macros, variables, and preprocessor symbols in the files.

cscope builds the symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on the source files for the program being browsed. On a subsequent invoca- tion, cscope rebuilds the cross-reference only if a source file has changed or the list of source files is different. When the cross-refer- ence is rebuilt, the data for the unchanged files are copied from the old cross-reference, which makes rebuilding faster than the initial build.

OPTIONS Some command line arguments can only occur as the the ony argument in the execution of cscope. They cause the program to just print out some output and exit immediately:

-h View the long usage help display.

-V Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

--help Same as -h

--version Same as -V

The following options can appear in any combination:

-b Build the cross-reference only.

-C Ignore letter case when searching.

-c Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is, do not compress the data.

-d Do not update the cross-reference.

-e Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

-Fsymfile Read symbol reference lines from symfile. (A symbol reference file is created by > and >>, and can also be read using the < command, described under Issuing Subsequent Requests, below.)

-freffile Use reffile as the cross-reference file name instead of the default "cscope.out".

-Iincdir Look in incdir (before looking in $INCDIR, the standard place for header files, normally /usr/include) for any #include files whose names do not begin with / and that are not specified on the command line or in namefile below. (The #include files may be specified with either double quotes or angle brackets.) The incdir directory is searched in addition to the current directory (which is searched first) and the standard list (which is searched last). If more than one occurrence of -I appears, the directories are searched in the order they appear on the command line.

-inamefile Browse through all source files whose names are listed in name- file (file names separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines) instead of the default name list file, which is called cscope.files. If this option is specified, cscope ignores any file names appearing on the command line. The argument namefile can be set to - to accept a list of files from the standard input. Filenames in the namefile that contain whitespace have to be enclosed in "double quotes". Inside such quoted file- names, any double-quote and backslash characters have to be escaped by backslashes.

-k Kernel Mode, turns off the use of the default include dir (usually /usr/include) when building the database, since kernel source trees generally do not use it.

-L Do a single search with line-oriented output when used with the -num pattern option.

-l Line-oriented interface (see Line-Oriented Interface below).

-[0-9]pattern Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

-Ppath Prepend path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-refer- ence file so you do not have to change to the directory where the cross-reference file was built. This option is only valid with the -d option.

-pn Display the last n file path components instead of the default (1). Use 0 to not display the file name at all.

-q Enable fast symbol lookup via an inverted index. This option causes cscope to create 2 more files (default names cscope.in.out and cscope.po.out) in addition to the nor- mal database. This allows a faster symbol search algorithm that provides noticeably faster lookup performance for large projects.

-R Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

-sdir Look in dir for additional source files. This option is ignored if source files are given on the command line.

-T Use only the first eight characters to match against C symbols. A regular expression containing special characters other than a period (.) will not match any symbol if its minimum length is greater than eight characters.

-U Check file time stamps. This option will update the time stamp on the database even if no files have changed.

-u Unconditionally build the cross-reference file (assume that all files have changed).

-v Be more verbose in line-oriented mode. Output progress updates during database building and searches.

files A list of file names to operate on.

The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files file.

Requesting the initial search

After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

Find this C symbol: Find this function definition: Find functions called by this function: Find functions calling this function: Find this text string: Change this text string: Find this egrep pattern: Find this file: Find files #including this file:

Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the desired input field, type the text to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

Issuing subsequent requests If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can be used:

0-9a-zA-Z Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

<Space> Display next set of matching lines.

<Tab> Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

<Up> Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the previous matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

<Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the next matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

+ Display next set of matching lines.

- Display previous set of matching lines.

^e Edit displayed files in order.

> Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

>> Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

< Read lines from a file that is in symbol reference format (cre- ated by > or >>), just like the -F option.

^ Filter all lines through a shell command and display the result- ing lines, replacing the lines that were already there.

| Pipe all lines to a shell command and display them without changing them.

At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

<Return> Move to next input field.

^n Move to next input field.

^p Move to previous input field.

^y Search with the last text typed.

^b Move to previous input field and search pattern.

^f Move to next input field and search pattern.

^c Toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When ignoring letter case, search for FILE will match File and file.)

^r Rebuild the cross-reference.

! Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

^l Redraw the screen.

? Give help information about cscope commands.

^d Exit cscope.

NOTE: If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one of the above commands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

Substituting new text for old text

After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the new text, and then it will display the lines containing the old text. Select the lines to be changed with these single-character commands:

0-9a-zA-Z Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

* Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

<Space> Display next set of lines.

+ Display next set of lines.

- Display previous set of lines.

a Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

^d Change the marked lines and exit.

<Esc> Exit without changing the marked lines.

! Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

^l Redraw the screen.

? Give help information about cscope commands.

Special keys

If your terminal has arrow keys that work in vi, you can use them to move around the input fields. The up-arrow key is useful to move to the previous input field instead of using the <Tab> key repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they will act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respectively.

Line-Oriented interface

The -l option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface would not be useful, for example, from another screen-oriented program.

cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line starting with the field number (counting from 0) immediately followed by the search pattern, for example, lmain finds the definition of the main function.

If you just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L and -num pattern options, and you wont get the >> prompt.

For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

For each reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the file name, function name, line number, and line text, separated by spaces, for example, main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

Note that the editor is not called to display a single reference, unlike the screen-oriented interface.

You can use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when search- ing. (When ignoring letter case, search for FILE will match File and file.)

You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first charac- ter of an input line is ^d or q.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES CSCOPE_EDITOR Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you wish to use a different editor with cscope than that specified by your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

CSCOPE_LINEFLAG Format of the line number flag for your editor. By default, cscope invokes your editor via the equivalent of editor +N file , where N is the line number that the editor should jump to. This format is used by both emacs and vi. If your edi- tor needs something different, specify it in this variable, with %s as a placeholder for the line number. Ex: if your editor needs to be invoked as editor -#103 file to go to line 103, set this variable to -#%s.

CSCOPE_LINEFLAG_AFTER_FILE Set this variable to yes if your editor needs to be invoked with the line number option after the filename to be edited. To continue the example from CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor needs to see editor file -#number, set this environment variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do not need to set this variable.

EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

HOME Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

INCLUDEDIRS Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

SHELL Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

SOURCEDIRS Colon-separated list of directories to search for additional source files.

TERM Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

TERMINFO Terminal information directory full path name. If your terminal is not in the standard terminfo directory, see curses and terminfo for how to make your own terminal description.

TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less), which overrides EDITOR (see above).

VPATH A colon-separated list of directories, each of which has the same directory structure below it. If VPATH is set, cscope searches for source files in the directories specified; if it is not set, cscope searches only in the current directory.

FILES cscope.files Default files containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list of source files (overridden by the -i option).

cscope.out Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which is put in the home directory if it cannot be created in the cur- rent directory.

cscope.in.out cscope.po.out Default files containing the inverted index used for quick sym- bol searching (-q option). If you use the -f option to rename the cross-reference file (so its not cscope.out), the names for these inverted index files will be created by adding .in and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you indicated -f xyz, then these files would be named xyz.in and xyz.po.

INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

Notices cscope recognizes function definitions of the form: fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

where: fname is the function name

blank is zero or more spaces or tabs, not including newlines

args is any string that does not contain a " or a newline

white is zero or more spaces, tabs, or newlines

arg_decs are zero or more argument declarations (arg_decs may include comments and white space)

It is not necessary for a function declaration to start at the begin- ning of a line. The return type may precede the function name; cscope will still recognize the declaration. Function definitions that deviate from this form will not be recognized by cscope.

The Function column of the search output for the menu option Find functions called by this function: input field will only display the first function called in the line, that is, for this function

e() { return (f() + g()); }

the display would be

Functions called by this function: e File Function Line a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

Occasionally, a function definition or call may not be recognized because of braces inside #if statements. Similarly, the use of a vari- able may be incorrectly recognized as a definition.

A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will be incorrectly recognized as a global definition, for example,

LDFILE * #if AR16WR

Preprocessor statements can also prevent the recognition of a global definition, for example,

char flag #ifdef ALLOCATE_STORAGE = -1 #endif ;

A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a function call, for example,

f() { void g(); }

is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

cscope recognizes C++ classes by looking for the class keyword, but doesnt recognize that a struct is also a class, so it doesnt recog- nize inline member function definitions in a structure. It also doesnt expect the class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly recognizes X as a definition in

typedef class X * Y;

It also doesnt recognize operator function definitions

Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other) { ... }

Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer argument

ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern, int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *)) { ... }

The Santa Cruz Operation August 2003 CSCOPE(1)