GETPRIORITY(2) Linux Programmer s Manual GETPRIORITY(2)
NAME getpriority, setpriority - get/set program scheduling priority
SYNOPSIS #include <sys/time.h> #include <sys/resource.h>
int getpriority(int which, int who); int setpriority(int which, int who, int prio);
DESCRIPTION The scheduling priority of the process, process group, or user, as indicated by which and who is obtained with the getpriority() call and set with the setpriority() call.
The value which is one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER, and who is interpreted relative to which (a process identifier for PRIO_PROCESS, process group identifier for PRIO_PGRP, and a user ID for PRIO_USER). A zero value for who denotes (respectively) the calling process, the process group of the calling process, or the real user ID of the calling process. Prio is a value in the range -20 to 19 (but see the Notes below). The default priority is 0; lower priorities cause more favorable scheduling.
The getpriority() call returns the highest priority (lowest numerical value) enjoyed by any of the specified processes. The setpriority() call sets the priorities of all of the specified processes to the spec- ified value. Only the superuser may lower priorities.
RETURN VALUE Since getpriority() can legitimately return the value -1, it is neces- sary to clear the external variable errno prior to the call, then check it afterwards to determine if a -1 is an error or a legitimate value. The setpriority() call returns 0 if there is no error, or -1 if there is.
ERRORS EINVAL which was not one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER.
ESRCH No process was located using the which and who values specified.
In addition to the errors indicated above, setpriority() may fail if:
EPERM A process was located, but its effective user ID did not match either the effective or the real user ID of the caller, and was not privileged (on Linux: did not have the CAP_SYS_NICE capabil- ity). But see NOTES below.
EACCES The caller attempted to lower a process priority, but did not have the required privilege (on Linux: did not have the CAP_SYS_NICE capability). Since Linux 2.6.12, this error only occurs if the caller attempts to set a process priority outside the range of the RLIMIT_NICE soft resource limit of the target process; see getrlimit(2) for details.
NOTES A child created by fork(2) inherits its parent s nice value. The nice value is preserved across execve(2).
The details on the condition for EPERM depend on the system. The above description is what POSIX.1-2001 says, and seems to be followed on all System V-like systems. Linux kernels before 2.6.12 required the real or effective user ID of the caller to match the real user of the pro- cess who (instead of its effective user ID). Linux 2.6.12 and later require the effective user ID of the caller to match the real or effec- tive user ID of the process who. All BSD-like systems (SunOS 4.1.3, Ultrix 4.2, 4.3BSD, FreeBSD 4.3, OpenBSD-2.5, ...) behave in the same manner as Linux >= 2.6.12.
The actual priority range varies between kernel versions. Linux before 1.3.36 had -infinity..15. Since kernel 1.3.43 Linux has the range -20..19. Within the kernel, nice values are actually represented using the corresponding range 40..1 (since negative numbers are error codes) and these are the values employed by the setpriority() and getprior- ity() system calls. The glibc wrapper functions for these system calls handle the translations between the user-land and kernel representa- tions of the nice value according to the formula unice = 20 - knice.
On some systems, the range of nice values is -20..20.
Including <sys/time.h> is not required these days, but increases porta- bility. (Indeed, <sys/resource.h> defines the rusage structure with fields of type struct timeval defined in <sys/time.h>.)
CONFORMING TO SVr4, 4.4BSD (these function calls first appeared in 4.2BSD), POSIX.1-2001.
SEE ALSO nice(1), fork(2), capabilities(7), renice(8)
BSD Man Page 2002-09-20 GETPRIORITY(2)